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How does retinal scanning works

How does a retinal scanner works?

retina scanner
A retinal scan relies on unique physiological characteristics of the eye to identify an individual
Retinal scanning is one of the most well-known biometric technologies. A retinal scan relies on unique physiological characteristics of the eye to identify an individual. Before we go into the working of retina scanner let us have a look at what is retina

What is retina?

The retina is a thin tissue composed of neural cells and thin blood vessels that is located in the posterior portion of the eye. The purpose of the retina is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.
retina scan
Human eye structure
Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood, each person's retina is unique. The network of blood vessels in the retina is not entirely genetically dictated. Even identical twins do not share a similar retinal pattern. Retinal biometric exploits this uniqueness.

Working of a retinal scanner

A retinal scan is performed by projecting a beam of low-energy infrared light into a person’s eye as they look through the scanner’s eyepiece This infrared light beam traces a circular path on the retina at the back of the eye. The blood-filled capillaries absorb more of the infrared light than the surrounding tissue. Because of this, there is a variation in the intensity of the reflection.

Instead of storing complete image ,the scanner measures this reflection at difference points along the beam path.
retina scan image
Image of retina and blood vessels
A standard scanner measures reflection at 320 points. It then assigns an intensity grade between zero and 4,095. The resulting numbers are compressed into an 80-byte computer code and stored in data base.We have already seen that retina blood vessel pattern of each person is unique. So chances of spoofing is so little.

Retina scan vs iris scan

Retina scanning is often confused with iris recognition. Even though both rely on unique physiological attributes of the eye to identify an individual,there are certain differences in the way they work.

The iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the size of the pupils and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. The color of the iris defines the eye color.

Iris Recognition uses a camera, which is similar to any digital camera(NIR:Near InfraRed camera), to capture an image of the Iris.

Iris scanner uses mathematical pattern-recognition techniques on images of the irises of an individual’s eyes, whose complex random patterns are unique and can be seen from some distance.

Nowadays iris scan is preferred over retina scan due to its advantages. While the accuracy of retina scan can be affected by diseases; the iris texture remains extremely stable because it is internal and protected, yet externally visible part of the eye.

Retinal scanning advantages and disadvantages

Advantages:
  • Less tampered: Since iris is inside our body chances of tampering is very less.
  • Less chances of theft since it is always inside your body.
  • High accuracy: error rate is one in million
  • Speedy results: Identity of the subject is verified very quickly.
  • They do not require as much computer memory as other biometrics like fingerprint scan, voice recognition etc..
Disadvantages:
  • Invasive:Retina scan requires a very close encounter with the scanning device by using a beam of light deep inside the eye which is considered to be invasive and this may leads to eye problems.
  • Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease such as cataracts, severe astigmatism
  • Retinal patterns may be altered in cases of diabetes, glaucoma or retinal degenerative disorders,
  • High equipment cost

Application and uses of retinal scanning

Retinal scan security systems: Retinal scanners are typically used for authentication and identification purposes.It is used by several government agencies including the FBI, CIA, and NASA.. Retinal scanning has been used in prisons, for ATM identity verification

Medical application: Retinography or retinal scanning also has medical applications. Communicable illnesses such as AIDS, syphilis, malaria, chicken pox well as hereditary diseases like leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle cell anemia impact the eyes. Pregnancy also affects the eyes. Likewise, indications of chronic health conditions such as congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, and cholesterol issues first appear in the eyes.

Protect your personal data:Retina scanner phones and Iris scanner phones are already out there in the market. Most of the leading smartphone companies like apple,Samsung,Microsoft prefer iris scan over retina scan.Many app builders are also coming with retina scanner for android. But reliability of such applications are quiet doubtful.

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Google Tez UPI app:How you can sign up and transfer money?

Google has launched NPCI UPI based payment app Tez.How you can sign up and transfer money?

google tez logoFinally global search giant global has entered Indian booming digital payment industry with the launch of Tez on 18th September.Tez has joined UPI club of PayTM, PhonePe, and the official app BHIM.Each bank has launched their own UPI(Unified Payment Interface) app. But private players are making most out of NPCI(National payments Corporation of India) UPI platform.Each UPI app comes with it's own uniqueness. After the introduction of UPI use of digital wallets has decreased considerably.

Google has also incorporated a bit of innovation in its Tez app.One of the unique features included in Google Tez app is “Cash Mode” which helps you send money without needing the recipient's number or QR codes, instead using an audio matching system.

How to sign-up for Google Tez?

Let us see how one an sign up and use Google Tez UPI app.
goolgle tez upi app sign up process
Tez sign-up process
Step1:Download and Install Google Tez app from Playstore or iTunes
Step2:Open the app and choose the language.
Step3:Enter your phone number (Phone number should be linked with bank A/C)
Step4:Select your email ID
Ste4:Upon verifying mobile number and emaill, you will be asked to select either google PIN or pattern lock for your Tez app
Step5:Set PIN or Pattern lock
Step6:Select your bank
Step7:App will automatically fetch your corresponding bank account linked with your mobile number.
Step8:After fetching bank account you have to set a UPI PIN.If you already have a UPI PIN then enter and proceed. Now you are ready to go.

With Tez on hand what all things you can do?

  • Transfer money between your own bank accounts or with others accounts
  • Pay bills for taxi,hotel or any shopkeeper
  • tansfer money to other user without revealing your bank details or phone number using "Cash
    Mode"
  • Shop online with tez 
  • Earn Tez Scratch Cards to win up to ₹1,000 with each transaction and be eligible to win ₹1 lakh every week with Lucky Sundays. You don’t need to hunt for coupon codes. Just use Tez and if you win, your rewards go straight into your bank account.
  • Tez can do whatever NPCI UPI is capable of

How to use use unique "CashMode" in google Tez app for transferring money?

Step1:After fetching your bank account details ,just launch your app and tap on CashMode button
Step2:If you wish to make payment to nearby user just tap on pay or else if you are receiving payment just tap receive.
google tez cash mode

Step3:App will automatically other tez users nearby through wifi connectivity.This resembles file establishing connection between two users in file sharing apps like 'shareit' or 'xender'.
Google tez fund transfer

Step4:After establishing connection just enter amount you wish to pay and proceed.
google tez cash transfer

How safe Google Tez is ?

  • Secure payments with Tez Shield:The Tez Shield works 24/7 to help detect fraud, prevent hacking, and verify your identity. 
google tez shield

  • Two layer verification with Google PIN and UPI PIN.Each transaction is secured with your UPI PIN and the app is secured with a Google PIN or your screen lock method such as fingerprint. 
  • 24/7 dedicated help center is also for your queries 
Why UPI apps like Google tez,PhonePe etc are preferred over digital wallets.?
 Answer is crystal clear. In digital wallets you need to keep money in your wallet which does not return any interest.But in UPI based app you need not keep money with app. Money will be kept in your bank accounts only, which will be earning regular interest also.UPI application is acting as an agent for transferring money. 
Since India is targeting a digital economy, payments apps like GOOGLE Tez will remain relevant in coming years.
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Exciting New features of iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus

iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus launched.What are the new exciting features and specs?

Finally iPhone 8 is out.iPhone 8 is available in two variants.iPhone 84.7-inch display and iPhone 8 Plus 5.5-inch display.What is new in iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus?What changes they have from iPhone 7.?
iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 plus
Apple claims,
iPhone 8 introduces an all‑new glass design. The world’s most popular camera, now even better. The smartest, most powerful chip ever in a smartphone. Wireless charging that’s truly effortless. And augmented reality experiences never before possible. iPhone 8. A new generation of iPhone.

Design

iPhone 8 and 8+ features front and back glass design
  • An iPhone formed from glass.Both models iPhone 8 and iPhone 8+ feature a glass back and front. 
  • A colour‑matched, aerospace‑grade aluminium band. 
  • Three new finishes.iPhone 8 comes in three new glass finishes: space grey, silver and gold.
  • Water and Dust Resistant
  • And an oleophobic coating lets you easily wipe off smudges and fingerprints.

Apple A11 Bionic: The fastest six-core mobile processor

iphone 8 and 8 plus A11 bionic processorsThere are two “performance” cores and four “high-efficiency cores” for a total of six.This chip falls under the category ‘heterogeneous computing processor’, which is effectively allows devices to run on processors that have cores of different specifications. This unlike a processor in your PC, where all the processor cores are exactly the same.
  • Speeding up image recognition including biometrics. Apple says it’s the “most powerful, and smartest chip ever in a smartphone”.
  • Compared to  A10 series, Apple claims 25% better performance from those all-important performance cores, while the four high-efficiency cores will collectively be 70% faster for background tasks. What’s more exciting is that the controller, which decides what cores get which tasks, now allows all six cores to work on the same task, allowing for 70% faster multi-threaded workloads.
  • Graphical processor GPU is said to be 30% faster than A10, while consuming half the power.
  • The A11 Bionic includes a faster image signal processor for better camera performance, better pixel processing and better noise reduction.

Dispaly

New 4.7‑inch and 5.5‑inch Retina HD displays.Retina Display is a term developed by Apple to refer to devices and monitors that have a resolution and pixel density so high – roughly 300 or more pixels per inch – that a person is unable to discern the individual pixels at a normal viewing distance.

  • True Tone technology automatically adjusts the white balance to match the light around you. For a better viewing experience in all kinds of environments. So images on the display look as natural as on a printed page, reducing eyestrain.
  • With a wide colour gamut and the best colour accuracy in the industry, everything on the screen looks more brilliant and vibrant.
  • Apple 3D Touch is a hardware-based feature Apple introduced in iPhone 6s and 6s Plus  that perceives the amount of force a user puts on the touch screen to activate different functions.
  • Wide Viewing Angles:Dual‑domain pixels give you a great view of the screen from almost any angle.Dual-domain pixel is a special arrangement of pixels in a display to obtain wide viewing angle.

Wireless Charging

iPhone 8 and 8+ are truly wireless device, free from charging cables and headphone cords. With a glass back and an embedded wireless charging system, iPhone 8 and iPhone+ is designed for a wireless future.
iphone 8 wireless chaging
Apple  devices on wireless charging pad
The intelligent new AirPower mat(coming in 2018) lets you charge your compatible iPhone, Apple Watch and AirPods anywhere on its surface.The AirPower mat uses a new kind of charging standard that supports multi-device charging.
A Wireless World:Charge with wireless charging stations and mats in hotels, cafes and airports around the world

Cameras

iphone 8 plus dual camera
iPhone 8+ features  dual back camera
All‑New Sensor:iPhone 8 features a more advanced 12‑megapixel camera. With a larger, faster sensor. A new colour filter. Deeper pixels. And optical image stabilisation for photos and videos.

The intelligent, Apple‑designed image signal processor detects elements in the scene — like people, motion and lighting conditions — to optimise your photos even before you take them
  • iPhone 8 Plus Dual Cameras:iPhone 8 Plus has a wide‑angle camera with an ƒ/1.8 six‑element lens, optical image stabilisation and a larger, faster 12‑megapixel sensor. It also has a powerful ƒ/2.8 telephoto camera. Together these two cameras enable optical zoom and Portrait mode.
  • Quad-LED True Tone flash with Slow Sync
  • Backside illumination sensor
  • Body and face detection
  • Burst mode
  • 4K video recording at 24 fps

iOs 11

Apple iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 plus run on iOs 11.It makes iPhone better than before.Apple says 'iOS is the most advanced, intuitive and secure mobile operating system in the world.
iphone 8 ios11
iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 plus run on iOs 11
    • The new Files app brings all your files together. You can easily browse, search and organise all your files in one place. And there’s a dedicated place for your recent files.
    • iOS 11 makes it easier and more intuitive than ever to multitask. You can open a second app directly from the Dock and both apps remain active in Slide Over as well as Split View.
    • Augmented reality.:iOS is the world’s largest augmented reality platform. Games and apps now offer fantastically immersive and fluid experiences that go far beyond the screen. By taking advantage of the latest in AR technology, you can digitally redecorate your home, explore a city you’ve never visited or even try on a new tattoo. 
    • Siri:Through advanced machine learning and artificial intelligence, Siri can send a message, set a timer, be your personal DJ and so much more. 
    • AirPlay 2. With the new AirPlay 2, you can control your home audio system and the speakers throughout your house. You can play a song in the living room and your kitchen at the same time. Adjust the volume in any room. Or have your music start instantly on all your speakers — in sync with one another.
    • Do Not Disturb.When you’re driving, just drive:iPhone can now sense when you might be driving and help keep you from being distracted by calls, text messages and notifications. People trying to message you can automatically be notified that you’re driving.
    • QuickType keyboard for one hand typing
    • Automatic Setup:Just hold your new iPhone or iPad near an iOS device to sign in with your Apple ID automatically. Many of your personal settings, preferences and content will be quickly and securely imported.
    There is no doubt that iPhone is the most trustworthy smartphone brand,but Samsung pose a real threat to iPhone models since Samsung has geared up their innovation and competitiveness.iPhone 8 and 8+ are priced at $699 and $799 respectively.But Samsung has already rolled out handsets with above specs for lower price tag.Android is also fast evolving.So demand for iPhone 8 and 8+ is yet to see. As a brand iPhone is always a step ahead but people also love innovations and uniqueness.
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    New features of Android 8.0 Oreo

    What is new in android 8.0 Oreo?

    Finally much sweeter android 8.0 is out.Android 8.0 Oreo follows Android 7.1.2 Nougat, and it continues Google’s tradition of alphabetically naming its version updates after desserts.Every smartphone enthusiast will be eager to know the new features of Android 8.0 Oreo.
    Android 8.0 Oreo Mascot
    Android 8.0 doesn't have much visible overhauls from it's predecessors.But there are plenty of new useful features.These small small changes make Android version 8.0 an update you don’t want to miss.

    2x faster booting

    Google claims that boot time of Android 8.0 Oreo OS is 2x faster than its predecessors.Get started on your favorite tasks more quickly when powering up.

    Autofill

    Account creation, login, and credit card transactions take time and are prone to errors. Users can easily get frustrated with apps that require these types of repetitive tasks.With your permission, Autofill remembers your logins to get you into your favorite apps at supersonic speed.Think of Google Chrome browser’s autofill option, where it stores your login information or address, and allows you to easily add it into forms.

    Smart Text selection

    Smart Text Selection is also one of those features you won’t appreciate until you use it. We’ve all had to copy an address or phone number from one app, and then open the corresponding app such as Google Maps or your phone dialer to paste it in. Now with Smart Text Selection, when you highlight a phone number, for example, you’ll get the option to jump into the dialer app immediately.

    Picture-in-Picture

    Android 8.0 allows activities to launch in picture-in-picture (PIP) mode. PIP is a special type of multi-window mode mostly used for video playback.
    android 8.0 picture-in-picture
    Picture-in-Picture
    Suppose you are watching your favourite YouTube videos and you want to text your friend without interrupting.This feature it lets you continue watching a YouTube video or a video call when you exit the app. The video now acts like a floating pop-up over the home screen or other app you’re using, allowing you to multitask.

    Notification

    Biggest change in Android 8.0 Oreo that a user will experience is it's redesigned notification behavior and settings.
    • Notification Dots:Press the notification dots to quickly see what's new, and easily clear them by swiping away.
    Android 8.0 provided innovative notification control feture
    • Notification channels: Android 8.0 introduces notification channels(notification categories) that allows user to customize each type of notification you want to display.This feature brings more control over what notifications you see. Press and hold a notification, and you can see a toggle to block all notifications from an app.
    • Notification Snoozing: Users can snooze notifications, which causes them to disappear for a period of time before reappearing.

    Google Play Protect

    Working to keep your device and data safe from misbehaving apps by scanning over 50 billion apps per day, even the ones you haven't installed yet!Even installing apps from outside the Play Store is now a little more secure. If you go to Settings > Security > Google Play Protect, it will tell you when it last checked your app and device for “harmful behavior.”

    Better battery back up

    Whether you're talking, playing, working or streaming, you can feel confident about keeping your battery strong and full of life.Features like Background Location Limits,Background Execution Limits etc.. make this possible.
    • Background Location Limits:In an effort to reduce power consumption, Android 8.0 (API level 26) limits how frequently background apps can retrieve the user's current location. Apps can receive location updates only a few times each hour.
    • Background execution limits:Whenever an app runs in the background, it consumes some of the device's limited resources, like RAM. This can result in an impaired user experience, especially if the user is using a resource-intensive app, such as playing a game or watching video. To improve the user experience, Android 8.0 Oreo imposes limitations on what apps can do while running in the background.

    New Emojis

    Android Oreo new emojis
    Android 8.0 Comes with lot more interesting emojis
    Android 8.0 Oreo is packed with over 60 new emoji.

    Adaptive icons

    Android 8.0  introduces adaptive launcher icons. Adaptive icons support visual effects, and can display a variety of shapes across different device models
    android 8.0 icon shapes
    Android Oreo icon shapes
    Android 8.0 devices allows user to choose  icon shape.A number of options like Square,Rounded Square,Squircle and Teardrop are there to choose from.

    Downloadable fonts

    Applications no longer need to bundle custom fonts, which helps reduce their size.Fonts can be downloaded and installed separately.

    Wi-Fi Aware

    Android 8.0 adds support for Wi-Fi Aware.On devices with the appropriate Wi-Fi Aware hardware, apps and nearby devices can discover and communicate over Wi-Fi without an Internet access point.

    Pointer capture

    Some apps, such as games, remote desktop, and virtualization clients, greatly benefit from getting control over the mouse pointer. Pointer capture is a new feature in Android 8.0  that provides such control by delivering all mouse events to a focused view in your app.

    Integrated printing support

    Android8.0 comes with inbuilt printer support.Android Oreo devices will be compatible with all Mopria-certified printers, which make up 97% of printers sold worldwide.

    Project Treble

    The biggest change to the foundations of Android to date: a modular architecture that makes it easier and faster for hardware makers to deliver Android updates.

    Android 7.0 Nougat’s release in August 2016, the version is only installed on 13.5 percent of Android devices. iOS 10, on the other hand, is installed on 86 percent of devices. When Google rolls out an update, chipmakers, manufacturers, and carriers all need to test it out to make sure nothing breaks, and this process can take months, if not more.Project Treble attempts to mitigate the issue by separating the Android code to make it easier for chipmakers like Qualcomm to find and make sure the software works with its processors.

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    How Does a Computer Mouse Works?

    Working Principle of a Computer mouse

    Every person reading this article undoubtedly have held a computer mouse in your hand.But how many of you wonder how this little device works.Here we have tried to explain 'how does a computer mouse works?'. Computer mouse is a pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display.Mouse is an HID (Human Interface Device) that makes your computer easy to use.Mouse can also be viewed as a cursor control device.

    Types of Computer Mouse

    Mainly there are two types of 'mouses'. Ball mouse(Mechanical mouse) and Optical mouse.

    How does a mechanical mouse work?


    mechanical ball mouse working
    A ball mouse
    How does a ball mouse actually work? As you move it across your desk, the ball rolls and pushes against two plastic rollers(2) mechanically connected to thin wheels (3). One of the wheels detects movements in an back-and-forth direction (say x axis),the other detects side-to-side movements (y-axis).They how they convert this movements into signals?

    when you move the mouse, the ball moves the rollers that turn one or both of the wheels. If you move the mouse straight forward or backward, only the x-axis wheel turns; if you move to the right or left, only the y-axis wheel turns. And if you move the mouse at an angle, the ball turns both wheels at once.

    Each wheel has slots on their edges , as it turns, the slots repeatedly break a infrared/light beam. The more the wheel turns, the more times the beam is broken. Counting the number of times the beam is broken will give how far the wheel has turned and how far you've moved the mouse. The counting,measuring and calibration are done by the microchip inside the mouse, which sends the signals down the cable to your computer. Software in your computer moves the cursor on your monitor by a corresponding amount.

    How Optical mouse works?

    Optical mouse working principle is entirely different from that of mechanical mouse.
    An optical mouse uses a light source, typically a light-emitting diode (LED)/LASER, and a light detector, such as an array of photodiodes, to detect movement relative to a surface.

    Typical optical mouse has three major parts, a light source(LED), light guiding channel(Plastic LENS) and light detector(CMOS array).
    Optical mouse parts and functions
    In most of the optical mouse RED LED is the light source.Plastic light guide(LENS) channels the light from the LED at an angle, down onto the desk. Light-detector chip measures light reflected back up from the desk.This CMOS light detector is a low resolution Camera.

    This CMOS array takes successive images of the surface on which the mouse operates.This successive images will be processed by a DSP(Digital signal processor).Successive images will have only small differences.So, it is possible to determine in which direction mouse has moved by comparing this images.As computing power grew cheaper, it became possible to embed more powerful special-purpose image-processing chips in the mouse itself.
    working of optical mouse
    Illustration of successive images captured by CMOS array
    Assume this is your desktop/mouse pad surface. Let 1,2 and 3 be the images captured by light detector at different instance of time t1,t2 and t3 respectively. If image 3 comes after image 1, we can easily infer that mouse moved towards right side. If image2 follows image1 ,it means mouse has moved towards left.Like this DSP determines direction of movements.

    Other variants of computer mouse

    Inertial and gyroscopic mice:Often called "air mice" since they do not require a surface to operate, inertial mice use a tuning fork or other accelerometer to detect rotary movement for every axis supported
    3D mice:These devices generally function through ultrasound and provide at least three degrees of freedom.

    logitec 3D mouse
    Logitech 3D ultrasonic mouse
    What we have seen here is just an abstract of working principle of mouse.Following reference links will explain the working of mouse in an elaborated way.
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