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Reliance Jio ready to launch 5G by 2020

When Jio is going to launch 5G in India?

Jio 5g roll out in india
Reliance Jio is preparing to launch fifth generation, or 5G, telecom services by mid of 2020."Jio has 5G-ready LTE network and we are capable of launching the new technology-based services within five-six months once spectrum is allocated ",a company official of Mukesh Ambani-owned RJIL(Realince Jio Infocom ) said.

The government recently said it plans to allocate 5G spectrum by end of 2019 which means the Jio could launch the 5g services in India by middle of 2020.


How much speed 5G will provide:5G network can support download speeds 50 to 60 times faster than 4G .At present Reliance Jio 4G network offers a maximum download speed of 100Mbps.

5G network key focuses:Fibre rollouts is a key near term focus for the telecom sector, especially for the development of 5G . Jio is aggressively deploying optic fibre which forms the backbone of a 5G network.Jio and Bharathi Airtel have started deploying  MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and Software-defined Networking (SDN), to get their networks 5G ready.

5G network challenges: Biggest challenge would be the readiness of the ecosystem, including availability of devices, which support new spectrum band. But, reliance can beat this since they have already solved the same problem during 4G rollout.

Leading chip makers Qualcomm and MediaTek— are developing 5G-based modems.Chinese teleco Huawei is also a front runner in 5G cell technology and network devices .

Another challenge in 5G rollout is deployment of new cell towers. Since 5G uses higher band frequencies coverage area of each unit will be lesser than that of 3G and 4G. Instead of bigger towers numerous small towers need to be deployed across the country.

Reliance Industries is in discussions with both local and multinational vendors to ensure the availability ahead of the devices before the commercial 5G rollout. Globally, devices supporting 5G technology are expected to be available some time in 2019, starting with the high-end models.

5G upgradation would be easier for Jio which already has an all IP-based network, experts say.

5G spectrum allocation :Telecom secretary Aruna Sundararajan recently said the transition to 5G from 4G could happen much faster compared with the switch from 3G to 4G services.The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has already invited Jio , Bharti Airtel, Vodafone Idea and Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) for field trials for which it is planning to allocate free-of-cost spectrum for a limited period. This would provide an opportunity for telcos to develop the ecosystem and study the market. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) has already recommended spectrum in the 3300 Mhz - 3600 Mhz range for the rollout of 5G services in the country .
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How Facial Recognition Systems Work?

How Facial Recognition Systems Work ?Steps involved in facial re cognition process, Techniques for face acquisition,Applications of facial recognition,Face recognition with AI

In Facebook and other social media sites , you might have noticed that it has the ability to recognize people's faces. In group photos peoples’ faces are recognized and tagged. This is just one example of high-tech facial recognition software. Facial recognition is used in lot of areas like security systems, access control, identity verification etc. Modern smartphones uses facial recognition to secure your data from unauthorized access. Here is How Facial Recognition Systems Work.

How we recognize other people’s faces? ,Human faces have certain qualities you recognize. The spacing of eyes on a face, the position and width of a nose, the shape of a hairline and chin -- these are all things that you unconsciously use to recognize someone’s face. A computer uses same method to identify faces.

How face recognition algorithm works?

Like other “biometric” identification systems, facial recognition examines physical features of a person’s face in an attempt to uniquely distinguish one person from all the others. Other forms of biometric recognition include the very common fingerprint matching, retina scanning, iris scanning and voice recognition.
A facial recognition system measures the overall facial structure, including distances between eyes, nose, mouth, and jaw edges. Each human face has approximately 80 nodal points. Distance between these nodal points are measured and stored. These measurements are retained in a database and used as a comparison when a user stands before the camera.

Some of the features measured for facial recognition are:
  • Distance between the eyes 
  • Width of the nose 
  • Depth of the eye sockets 
  • The shape of the cheekbones 
  • The length of the jaw line 
These nodal points are measured creating a numerical code, called a faceprint, representing the face in the database.

Five steps involved in facial recognition process are
  • Capture - a physical or behavioral sample is captured by the system during enrollment 
  • Extraction - unique data is extracted from the sample and a template is created 
  • Normalization: Normally face image is captured at different angles and different distances gives different measurements. These values needed to be normalized before comparing with the stored template. 
  • Comparison - the template is then compared with a new sample 
  • Matching - the system then decides if the features extracted from the new sample are matching or not 

Techniques for face acquisition

Traditional:In this method landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face are extracted. For example, an algorithm may analyze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose, cheekbones, and jaw .These features are then used to search for other images with matching features.In this techniques facial recognition camera used is a normal camera.

3-Dimensional recognition:Three-dimensional face recognition technique uses 3D sensors to capture information about the shape of a face. This information is then used to identify distinctive features on the surface of a face, such as the contour of the eye sockets, nose, and chin. It can identify a face from a range of viewing angles.Three-dimensional data points from a face vastly improve the precision of face recognition.
Thermal Cameras:Input for facial recognition can also be captured with Infrared thermal cameras. In this cameras will only detect the shape of the head and it will ignore the subject accessories such as glasses, hats, or make up. It uses low-sensitive, low-resolution ferro-electric electrics sensors that are capable of acquire long wave thermal infrared (LWIR). Fusion of LWIR and regular visual cameras has greater results in outdoor probes.

Applications of facial recognition

Social Media :Social media platforms have adopted facial recognition capabilities to diversify their functionalities in order to attract a wider user base amidst stiff competition from different applications.eg.Facebook photo tagging.
Mobile Technologies  ,Face ID :Apple introduced Face ID on the flagship iPhone X as a biometric authentication successor to the Touch ID, a fingerprint based system. Face ID has a facial recognition sensor that consists of two parts: first module that projects more than 30,000 infrared dots onto the user's face, and a second module that reads the pattern. Infrared sensors are used to ensure the camera is scanning your actual face and not a photo or 3D model. The pattern is then compared with confirm a match with the phone owner's face already stored in the phone. Apple’s Face ID also depends on AI(Artificial Intelligence) programs to improve the accuracy. Many other phones like Vivo V9 also comes with built in facial recognition.
Free facial recognition apps and facial recognition software are available for download and and use in mobile phones and PCs. But they are of limited accuracy.

Facial recognition in Security services :Most useful application of facial recognition systems is in security systems. It can be used in large open spaces like airports, arenas and shopping malls.

Advantages of facial recognition over other biometric technologies.

Face recognition technology is the least intrusive and fastest biometric technology.

Limitations and drawbacks of Facial Recognition

Poor resolution images and poor lighting can reduce the accuracy of face-scanning results.
Different angles and facial expressions, even a simple smile, can pose challenges for face matching systems. 

Facial recognition loses accuracy when the person is wearing items like glasses, hats, scarves, or hair styles that cover part of the face. Makeup and facial hair can also pose issues for face detection programs..

Facial recognition algorithm using Artificial Intelligence

In modern facial recognition programs Artificial Intelligence and neural network algorithms are blended to get better results. Neural networks learn from examples and respond to inputs it’s own based on the knowledge it acquired through examples. Even if input images are of poor quality , artificial intelligence algorithm can distinguish and identify images accurately.
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Huawei to launch first 5G smartphone by mid 2019

At its Global Analyst Summit 2018 in Shenzhen,China, Huawei detailed its plans to release its first 5G-enabled smartphone in the second half of 2019.

Huawei aims outsmart it's western counterparts in 5G roll out revealing plans to launch a handset next year packing the firm’s very own 5G modem.

Huawei recently revealed the Balong 5G01 chip in February at MWC 2018, in Barcelona. The company claims the model is capable of 2.3Gbps bandwidth.

This particular model is designed for mobile hotspots and self-driving cars. However, it is also working on modems exclusively for use in 5G smartphone.

Huawei’s 5G NR products have passed TÜV SÜD's (the European Union's certification authority) strict verification requirements after several rounds of rigorous testing and evaluation. As a leading information and communications technology (ICT) solutions provider, Huawei is now the first company to achieve a CE type examination certificate (TEC) for its 5G products.

If Tech rumors are correct, first 5G handset would be from Huawei mate series.

5G handset from other manufactures

Samsung signed a strategic agreement with Qualcomm that covered the “transition to 5G".This tells that Samsung is also keen on 5G hansets.Samsung had previously earmarked 2019 for its first 5G handsets. Qualcomm already has its own modem called the X50 for mobile devices recently managed to hit speeds of 4.51 gigabits per second.

Intel announced a partnership with Microsoft, Dell, HP, and Lenovo to create 5G-enabled laptops based on Intel's own modems.

5G handset challenges

  • Building a 5G smartphone is more challenging than 3G or 4G as these will include multi-modes (2G,3G,4G,4.9G, 5G SA/NSA).Packing multiple antennas and chipsets into a single device is tough and challenging.
  • 5G uses Millimeter wave bands (26, 28, 38, and 60 GHz)., which makes the RF integration and positioning more complicated.Designing boards  for RF is challenging.
  • 5G network data speed will be 1-10Gb. 5G phone needs 5x more processing power and 2.5x more power consumption.Currently available batteries are not a good choice for 5 handsets.
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Amazing features of Vivo V9 AI camera

Unique features of Vivo V9 AI(Artificial Intelligence) enabled camera can enhance your selfies like never before

features of Viivo v9 AI camera
Vivo V9 AI Camera
Chinese phone makers Vivo launched their latest smartphone Vivo V9 with a almost bezel-free 6.3-inch display, 24MP front camera and 16MP+5MP dual camera setup on the rear. Vivo V9 primarily focuses on high quality selfies.

Vivo claims thats "The V9’s world-leading 24MP front camera turns your every selfie into a work of art. Experience greater brightness, color vibrancy, clarity and dynamic range, even in the dimmest light. Whenever you need it, your V9 is right there with you, capturing every moment with crystal-clear precision. Turn your selfies into masterpieces and shine in every photo."

Features of Vivo V9 AI camera

-Bokeh effect: The Bokeh feature lets you blur the background and highlight the foreground before or after taking the shot.The V9 uses two rear cameras – a 16MP main camera and a 5MP secondary camera* – and is supported by an AI Bokeh algorithm. This algorithm has been optimized based on machine learning of large amounts of data, so it can achieve amazing bokeh shots that rival DSLR camera results.
Bokeh effect
-Shoot and focus later:You can even shoot first and focus later, transforming every photo into an artistic masterpiece.

-AI Face Beauty:Vivo claims - with the help of its AI (artificial intelligence) it will be able to work out your age, sex, skin tone and texture by referring to a database of almost one million facial images from all over the world, it detects your gender, age, skin tone and texture, as well as the lighting environment, and uses this information to deliver astonishingly clear, beautiful selfies.
It can also learn your customized setting preferences and apply these settings automatically each time you take a photo. Think of it as your personal make-up artist, ready to make you look naturally perfect in every shot.

-AI Face Access:With the all-new AI Face Access technology, the V9 scans your facial features and unlocks instantaneously upon activation. It also identifies unauthorized access attempts by detecting light-reflected surfaces and subtle facial movements, helping prevent phone unlocking through use of photos or video.
Vivo V9 AI camera face access

-AR Stickers:Vivo V9 comes with pre installed Augmented Reality(AR) stickers.
AR Sticker features numerous stickers that you can use to decorate your selfies and show off your cute side. Set your style to super-sweet, funny or punk, and transform your look with just a single click. Get ready to be playful and enjoy some serious photo fun.
Vivo v9 AI camera VR stickers
-Time-Lapse Photography:Time-lapse photography is a cinematography technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (aka the frame rate) is much lower that that which will be used to play the sequence back. When you replay this sequence at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and lapsing

-AI Selfie Lighting:With every photograph, the V9’s algorithm transforms the original 2D photo into a 3D model in order to process the light authentically and artistically. It can allow you to choose from a range of light effects to create model-style pictures. Get ready to transform any environment into your own professional photo studio.

-Group Panorama Selfie:The Vivo V9 also comes with the group selfies that allows you to shoot panoramic pictures from the front-facing camera. The feature requires you to move around the phone to get in as many as people in the frame as you’d like.

Other scene mode that are available with Vivo V9 AI camera:Ultra HD,PPT,Professional,Slow,,Camera Filter,Live,Bokeh,HDR,AI Face Beauty,Panorama,4K video, Palm capture,Gender detection,LED Flash,
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IBM creates ‘world’s smallest computer’ that’s smaller than a grain of salt

Recently during IBM Think 2018, the company's flagship conference, IBM unveiled what it claims is the world's smallest computer.The finished computer is smaller than a grain of salt.First of all let me tell you this tiny device is not for PC or smartphone.It has got some specific applications.
Left: 64 motherboards with two tiny computers in the top-left corner. Right: The tiny computer, mounted to a motherboard, atop a pile of salt. IBM
How much computing power tiny chip is embedded with?
It has the same computing power as Intel’s X86 chip from the 90s.It contains around million transistors.You may be wondering what we are going to do with such a small computing power.There comes the blockchain.

Architecture of IBM's world's smallest computer

IBM’s new computer, contains up to 1 million transistors, along with a small amount of static random access memory(RAM), a light-emitting diode (LED) and photo-detector that allow it to communicate, and an integrated photovoltaic(Solar cell) cell for power.
System architecture of IBM's tiny computer
How much it would cost?
IBM claims that it is “small enough and cheap enough to be put anywhere—and everywhere.”
The computer will cost less than 0.10$ to manufacture.On mass production it will reduce further.

Applications and uses of IBM's tiny computer

According to the company, the device will be a data source for anti-fraud blockchain applications.
Block chain is nothing but distributed decentralized database/Ledger that is nearly impossible to tamper.Blockchain became popular with bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. Specifically, this computer will be a data source for blockchain applications. It's intended to help track the shipment of goods and detect theft, fraud, and non-compliance.It can also do basic AI tasks, such as sorting the data it's given.

"Within the next five years, cryptographic anchors — such as ink dots or tiny computers smaller than a grain of salt — will be embedded in everyday objects and devices. They’ll be used in tandem with blockchain’s distributed ledger technology to ensure an object’s authenticity from its point of origin to when it reaches the hands of the customer. These technologies pave the way for new solutions that tackle food safety, authenticity of manufactured components, genetically modified products, identification of counterfeit objects and provenance of luxury goods".says IBM head of research Arvind Krishna.

Official release
It's not clear yet when this thing will be released — IBM researchers are currently testing its first prototype.
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Airbus’ self driving Alpha one could be the first commercial flying taxi

Aerospace giant airbus aims to place its  self-riding air taxi in market by 2020.

airbus alpha one autonomous flying taxi

Vahana, the aviation start-up backed by Airbus had completed it's successful flight of its self-piloted air taxi. Test was conducted at a site in pendleton, oregon.

Despite the fact that self flying taxis are years away, lot of companies have already invested lot of money and manpower  to make pilotless air travel a reality. The autonomous vehicle programme is called ‘Vahana’ and it is being developed by Airbus’ subsidiary A³ (pronounced “A-cubed”) based in Silicon Valley.The company's aim is to design and build a single passenger electric  self-navigated aircraft that suites urban mobility.Airbus has said it wants to build a fleet of autonomous, multirotor  aircraft that can be used to fly from rooftop to rooftop in metro cities where traffic is dense.
The alpha one is  powered by it's batteries  and is fully autonomous. The  plane measures 20 ft long and 19 feet wide and has a weighs  745 kg. It can fly vertically with the help of it's eight propellers and a six-rotors.A vertical and take-off and touchdown  design help the aircraft to take off and land in regions like a parking lot and taxi stands. 

Here’s a video of airbus’ air taxi flying in oregon 


Besides airbus,many other companies  are also working on their personal self-piloted air taxi programme. Google is developing an unmanned flying taxi, named “cora”. The automobile is being advanced by kitty hawk, the silicon valley start-up supported by  Google's co-founder Larry Page . Cora can fly faster than 150 kilometers consistent with hour and has a variety of one hundred kilometers. Online taxi service Uber plans to start a flying taxi carrier in dubai, dallas, andLos Angeles by  2020.

But there are lot of hurdles before flying taxis take off, which include regulations and technical challenges.There are no electric-powered aircraft, in commercial operation today. Flying requires an incredible amount of energy, and present battery technology just doesn’t offer the power-to-weight ratio needed to achieve liftoff. Experts predict that it will be years, if not decades, before the technology catches up.

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When will 5G be launched in india?

Latest news from tech world points towards India's determination towards launch 5G along with other major countries


5G refers to the next generation of wireless broadband technology. It will be the successor of 4G wireless broadband technology. 5G will be totally different from it's it's predecessors. It is not only a high speed mobile network, but also a network of interconnected devices that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Here device can be anything . 5G network envisages network of different kinds of devices connected using a standardized network backbone,that includes mobile handsets,computers,TV,Home appliances,Vehicles,IoT(Internet of Things) and other electronic devices and machines.

From the user’s perspective, 5G networks will offer higher speeds and more interconnect points. Experts believe that 5G will give a massive boost to Internet of Things (IoT), wherein devices, appliances and gadgets are connected to an internet network and can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

As you know Govt. of India is stressing on nation wide digitalisation programme and telecom war just got another face with the step-in of Reliance Jio. With the introduction of Jio, data has become much cheaper and competition has gone to it;s peek. But when will a full fledged 5G network be launched?.Let us have a look at some of the news about 5G in India and around the world.

AT&T aims to be the first U.S. carrier to provide 5G service

AT&T aims to be the first U.S. carrier to provide fifth-generation, or 5G mobile service to phone customers this year, pitting the wireless giant against VerizonCommunications (VZ) and T-Mobile US (TMUS) in a costly network upgrade race to spur revenue growth.AT&T claims that 'AT&T 5G services will be based on industry standards for 5G. To make this happen, we were one of the key drivers for standards acceleration last year.Because of that acceleration, 3GPP, the international wireless standards body, completed key elements of 5G new radio (NR) standards last month'. With these specifications now available, hardware, chipset and device manufacturers can start development. This allows us to provide mobile 5G services sooner.

"With faster speeds and ultra-low latency, 5G will ultimately deliver and enhance experiences like virtual reality, future driverless cars, immersive 4K video and more",said Melissa Arnoldi, president, AT&T Technology and Operations.

AT&T have already laid foundation for mobile 5G with the launch of 5G Evolution in 23 major metros; Atlanta; Austin; Boston; Bridgeport, Connecticut; Buffalo, New York; Chicago; Fresno; Greenville, South Carolina; Hartford, Connecticut; Houston; Indianapolis; Los Angeles; Louisville; Memphis; Nashville; New Orleans; Oklahoma City; Pittsburgh; San Antonio; San Diego; San Francisco; Tulsa, Oklahoma and Sacramento, California.

Last year, they also launched pre-standards 5G fixed wireless trials in Austin, Texas; Waco, Texas; Kalamazoo, Michigan and South Bend, Indiana with residential, small business, and education customers.

Verizon will launch 5G home internet access in 2018

Verizon has announced that it's launching residential 5G broadband (that is, fixed-in-place wireless) in three to five markets starting in the second half of 2018. It is expected that rollout will begin in Sacramento, California.Recently at MWC(Mobile World Congress) at Fira Barcelona Gran Via ,they were able to provide 5G network for entire area . It was fixed-in-place wireless network.Focus was on providing low latency network rather than a high speed network. Latency is the time taken by the network to respond to the request from user.

Huawei announces its first 5G chip for mobile devices

Huawei surpassed it's rival in 5G mobile device technology. Huawei announced its first 5G chip at this year’s Mobile World Congress 2018 in Barcelona, which will allow the company’s mobile devices to access the next generation of cellular networks, 5G.

The company claims that its Huawei Balong 5G01 chip is the first to support the new 3GPP standard for 5G networks.These 5G chips are capable of downloading data at 2.3Gbps. Huawei CEO Richard Yu says that his company has invested $600 million in the network technology, which will likely be used by everything from self-driving cars to mobile devices to smart homes. Huawei also manufactures network equipment and says that it will be the first company to offer “an end-to-end 5G solution through its network, devices and chipset-level capabilities.”

The chip would appear to be a challenge to other manufacturers like Qualcomm and Intel.
Airtel Launches India’s 1st 5G Capable Network

5G network in India

India launched it's 3G &4G little lately when compare with U.S and Europe countries.But India can't lag behind in 5G network. India is actively involved in the compliance and testing of 5G standards.India has recently constituted a 22-member high-level 5G Forum to evaluate and prepare a roadmap and action plan to meet the 2020 timeline.

With one of the largest delegations at the Mobile World Congress 2018, India highlighted its readiness for 5G services and technology leadership .India is one of the largest consumer of mobile data.This indeed going to bring global 5G players to India.

India's aspiration to take a leading role in 5G and Internet of Things (IoT) will ride on its ability to build core networks for new-age technologies and an enabling industry ecosystem, DoT Secretary Aruna Sundararajan said.

India plans to roll out 5G services for consumers by 2020 and to achieve that objective.Telecom secretary Aruna Sundararajan recently said that the telecom department was expected to finalise a roadmap for 5G services by June this year.

When asked about 5G spectrum auction in an interview during MWC 2018 , she said that the government will decide on it only after the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India submits recommendations to the government.

Airtel, Huawei conduct India’s first 5G network test trial

Bharti Airtel and Chinese telecom giant Huawei have successfully conducted India’s first 5G network trial at a test setup at the Airtel's network experience centre in Manesar, Gurgaon.

Abhay Savargaonkar, director – networks at Bharti Airtel, said the test is small but a significant step in its journey towards 5G mobile networks.He added '5G network data speed will be 100 times faster than current 4G networks.

During the test trial, a user throughput of more than 3 GBPS was achieved using the setup. This is the highest measured throughput for a mobile network in 3.5 GHz band with 100 MHz bandwidth and end-to-end network latency of approximately 1 msec. The setup included 5G RAN operating on 3.5 GHz band, 5G Core and 50GE Network Slicing router.

BSNL gearing up for bringing 5G in India

BSNL is gearing up for 5G as the telco had signed MoUs with Nokia& ZTE and started discussion with Japan's NTT according to a report by DNA..BSNL which is yet to launch its 4G services pan-India BSNL 4G service will be launchedpan India except for Delhi and Mumbai by second quarter of 2018. The reported quoted BSNL Chairman and MD Anupam Shrivastava saying, “The government is likely to infuse Rs 7000 crore in the form of equity while our investment will be around Rs 5500 crore. We expect the approval to come in April.”According to him, 5G is expected to come to India by next year.

Reliance Jio says their existing network is 5G ready

Jio cliams that it has an advantage over other operators when it comes to 5G rollout. One of the challenge in 5G rollout is building the underlying foundation for a resilient network(an all IP network). Jio's network is already IP ready. We know that Reliance Jio is the only network providing VoLTE based calling service in India.All other network providers switch to 2G/3G for calls.

5G network challenges

Unlike traditional 3G or 4G cellular networks that use lower band spectrum, 5G networks also incorporate mmWave spectrum, which is higher in the spectrum band in the 28 GHz and 38 GHz range.These spectrum bands can transmit very large amounts of data because of the amount of available spectrum, but only for short distances. Because of these constraints, the cellular network will rely on these smaller 30-foot towers rather than the bigger and geographically dispersed cellular towers used in 3G and 4G to carry the signals.This requires huge number of new sites and interconnections.

The telecom industry – currently reeling under debt of more than Rs 7 lakh crore mainly due to the competition triggered by the entry of Reliance may force the government to go slow on 5G spectrum auction.

As we have seen 5G network is not only a high-speed mobile network. It envisages an interconnected network of smart devices.Designing 5G capable devices are also a great challenge for manufacturers. Devices should be capable of handing ultra speed data transfer and new protocols that are yet to be finalized.

The core standards for 5G are being developed by 3GPP.For a fully functional 5G network architecture we have to wait till 2020. The first phase of 5G specifications in Release-15 will be completed by September 2018, to accommodate early commercial deployment.The second phase in Release-16 will be completed by March 2020.

Conclusion:Considering above discussed news, we could witness a 3.5 GHz band 5G network in India by mid 2020. Unlike older times, this time Government is keen on Switching to 5G along with other countries. Within a year India will be the largest market for telecom operators.Increased domestic and global competition will also help India in achieving 2020 timeline along with USA,China and Europe.It may take further many years for delivering full potential 5G network that we envisage.
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Swipe Elite Dual Cheapest phone with 4G VoLTE Support and Dual Rear Cameras Launched at Rs 3,999

Swipe Elite dual chepest phone with volte and dual rear camera
Dual-rear cameras have been in the trend since early 2017.Swipe Telecom is an innovative Indian startup offering the budget tablet pcs and dual sim android enabled smartphones. Swipe has launched a new smartphone in the India today, dubbed as the Swipe Elite Dual. Priced at Rs 3,999, the Elite Dual is the cheapest smartphone with dual rear cameras  and 4G VoLTE Support . Let’s see what else it has to offer.. 

The Elite Dual also has support for 4G VoLTE, meaning you can use True 4G carrier operator SIMs like that of Reliance Jio 4G.

Swipe Elite Dual Complete spec

  • Display:5.00-inch FWVGA with cratch-resistant protection
  • Processor:the phone is powered by a 1.3GHz quad-core MediaTek chipset
  • OS:Android 7.0 Nougat out of the box.Android Oreo 8.0 upgrade can be expected
  • RAM:1GB of RAM
  • Internal Storage: 8GB of internal storage.
  • Expandable memory: The storage can be expanded up to 32GB with a microSD card
  • Cameras: Swipe Elite Dual offers dual rear cameras of an 8MP primary sensor and a 2MP secondary sensor. The primary sensor captures RGB shots, while the secondary sensor captures depth information. Swipe has added a selfie-CAM of 5MP and both the rear, front cameras have support for an LED flash.
  • Battery:The Swipe Elite Dual is powered by a 3000mAh battery unit
  • Connectivity:It’s a dual-SIM smartphone and offers connectivity options such as Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.0, GPS and a micro USB port for charging and data transfer. It also has a 3.5mm headphone jack.
  • SIMs:Two Micro-SIM slots supports 4G-Volte
  • Sensors:Swipe Elite Dual is embedded with Proximity sensor Accelerometer for enhanced user experience.

How to and Where to buy Swipe Elite Dual

The device will be exclusively available via e-commerce portal Shopclues in three colour options- Gold, White and Black starting March 8, Thursday. Alongside the launch, the company also announced its partnership with Reliance Jio to offer Rs 2,200 instant cashback for the buyers.Rs 2,200 will be credited to the customer’s MyJio account in the form of Rs 50 vouchers of count 44.
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What to expect from Mobile World Congress 2018 Barcelona

Mobile World Congress 2018 is scheduled between 26 February and 1 March at Barcelona,Spain.

Mobile World Congress 2018 barcelona what to expect


  • The world's biggest phone show at Barcelona from Feb 26 to March 1
  • Samsung Galaxy S9 to launch confirmed
  • Nokia 9 ,Sony Xperia XZ pro,Asus Zenfone5 are expected
  • Huawei set to launch number of product
  • 2300+ exhibitors from 208 countries 
  •  Wearables and Health monitoring equipments to make a note 

MWC 2018 is about to kick start in city of Barcelona. This is the world’s largest gathering for the mobile industry, organised by the GSMA and held in the Mobile World Capital, Barcelona, 26 February – 1 March 2018.The show expects 108,000+Attendees,2,300+Exhibitors,400+Operator companies,10,000+Operator attendees and 208 Countries.Many big and small smartphone and accessory manufactures are expected to unveil their latest technologies and products during MWC 2018.

Leading Handset companies like Samsung,Sony,Nokia,,Huawei.Lenova etc. are all set to welcome WMC 2018 with their latest Mobile technologies and products

Apart from mobile handsets new wearables and accessories are also expected to be showcased at MWC 2018.Let have a look at what major manufactures might have brought for the great event.
Let us start with Samsung

Samsung at World Mobile Congress 2018:Biggest launch Galaxy S9 expected

Samsung galaxy s9 at MWC 2018
If rumours are correct Samsung Galaxy S9 is going to the biggest eye catcher of the show.Along with Galaxy S9 ,Galaxy S9 Plus with higher memory and larger display may also get launched.

Possibility of the Korean giant showing off a flexible wearable concept cannot be ruled out. Samsung had showcased their foldable phone prototype during a closed meeting at CES 2018 Las Vegas. So least one innovation in flexible technology can be expected from them at Barcelona.

Samsung Galaxy S9 and S9 plus may launch with 4GB and 6GB RAM respectively.Internal storage likely to be fall between 32GB and 128GB. Screens will be of 5.1 and 5.7 inches.

Sony at WMC 2019

Sony at MWC 2018

Electronics giant Sony may come up with some premium phones in Xperia XZ series.They may comes with a flagship Snapdragon 845 chipset, 6GB of RAM and a dual-lens rear camera .Sony may choose a A 5.7-inch 4K display for it's latest Xperia phones.An onscreen finger sensor can also be expected.

Huawei will ensure it's presence at World Mobile Congress 2018 with a handful of products and innovations

Huawei at MWC 2018
Huawei will be one of the show stealer of the MWC 2018.Apart from Huawei Handsets, they are ready to unveil a handful of products and technologies in 5G, IoT & Cloud .

On February 8, 2018, Huawei held a Pre-MWC 2018 Media and Analyst Briefing in London, during which the company called on all industries to work together and go beyond traditional boundaries in the areas of capabilities, connections, business, experience, and partnerships for a fully-connected, intelligent world.

Huawei says 'By 2025, 85% of enterprise applications will be deployed in the cloud, and 86% of global companies will adopt AI'.They also stresses on topics like ICT(Information and communication technology )infrastructure,Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G during pre-MWC 2018 briefing.So, let us hope they will come with some innovations in their pockets.

Lenovo: Moto

Lenovo may unveil next-gen Moto line G6 model considering that G5 was launched during last year.According to the leaks, there will be a standard Moto G6, a Moto G6 Plus, and a Moto G6 Play.

Rumours point to a Moto Z3 and Z3 Play with 6in, 18:9 borderless screens at 1080p resolution and another Z3 model may release at Quad HD resolution.

Nokia

Nokia 9 to launch at MWC 2018

Nokia's smartphone comeback story has not been great so far. HMD Global has launched a series of smart phones and feature phones with NOKIA brand name after it's take over,but they failed to launch something new and innovative. Nokia 8 was the latest in android smartphone series from HMD Global . But we're hoping the Nokia 9 is the phone to finally make the NOKIA brand handset pioneer again.

Nokia 9 will be a high-end flagship smartphone by the company .Nokia 9 is rumoured to come with a 5.30-inch touchscreen display with a resolution of 1440 pixels by 2560 pixels.Primary camera may have 22MB pixel .It is powered by a quad core processor and 4GB RAM and 64 GB inbuilt memory.Online leakers suggest that Nokia 9 will have dual curved edge bezel-less display with double-sided 3D glass design. The phone will get a rear-mounted circular fingerprint sensor.It is expected that phone will come with dual cameras on the front as well. Nokia 9 will feature reduced bezels on top and bottom of the screen.
Nokia 8 Pro, Nokia 7 Plus, Nokia 4 and Nokia 1 are also expected to be announced at the event.

Xiaomi

There are speculations that the Chinese smartphone maker will launch the Mi 7 as its next flagship.The official Mobile World Congress site confirms Xiaomi as one of the exhibitors at MWC 2018.However, it is unclear whether the they would launch some new models or just the upgrade to older versions.

December 2017, Xiaomi at the second annual Snapdragon Technology Summit in Hawaii announced that the Mi 7 will be the first smartphone to feature Qualcomm's Snapdragon 845 processors.Xiaomi Mi 7 is rumoured to sport a face unlock feature.This would be similar to Face ID feature in iPhone X.For better photography, the smartphone is likely to come with a dual rear camera setup.

Asus at MWC 2018

Asus has confirmed that it will launch a new version of its ZenFone smartphone during Mobile World Congress - the ZenFone 5.
It tweeted a save-the-date announcement, with an image of a giant, swirling "5".

Wearables and Health Monitoring equipment

Lot of companies researching in wearable health monitoring have registered for MWC this year. So we can expect some sporty wearables at MWC 2018. 

Major companies like samsung,Lenova etc.. are expected to unveil their smart watches at the show.Considering the fact that Android Wear 2.0 launched recently only, atleast some companies may hesitant to launch their product with older version during the show.

Few VR enabled headsets are also expected to make an entry into the show

Who all are not in WMC 2018?

HTC
Google's mobile device manufacturer HTC. Their flagship, which was reported titled HTC U12 won't be launched during the MWC 2018. HTC is undergoing financial turmoil hence they want to focus on their upcoming flagship device.

Apple
Apple doesn't usually unveil any of their most anticipated products during any public event. They prefer dedicated private event so that all the attention is on their product.

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Google Artificial Intelligence can predict flight delays and cheapest fare

Google will now predict if your flight will be delayed using it's Artificial Intelligence algorithm with 80% accuracy

Flight delays are always frustrating for travelers. Google has launched a new feature on its site, which it says can predict flight delays with over 80 percent accuracy, long before the airlines let anyone know.
google flights and artificial intelligence
The tool is available on the website Google Flights, as well as on Google's Flights app.Google Flights is an online flight booking search service which facilitates the purchase of airline tickets through third party suppliers.Google can help you choose right flight with cheapest rate for your journey. So far Google flight has been a flight search service just like any other service provider, but with the introduction of Artificial Intelligence ,Google flights is going to stand out from others.
google flights updated version
Google Flights Updated Version
Google AI has already a made remarkable achievements in various fields.Recently NASA revealed they use Google AI to detect exoplanets.

How Google AI predict flight delays

An Artificial Intelligence system usually learns by examples. Using historic flight status data, Google's machine learning algorithms can predict some delays even when this information is not available from airlines yet.

"We’re at least 80 per cent confident in the prediction. We still recommend getting to the airport with enough time to spare, but hope this information can manage expectations and prevent surprises," says Google in a blog post.

How to check flight delay
Go to google search bar and type in your flight number. That's all.It will give estimated time of departure and arrival along with other information like terminal,gate etc.. 

Here is the search result for Lufthansa LH 401 New York City to Frankfurt flight on 4th February 2018. You can see that Google predicts Flight may be delayed by DELAYED 1 HR, 50 MINS. Reason for the delay is also included. However google suggests 'confirm flight status on an airport monitor'.
Google flight status using Artificial Intelligence
Google Flight status search result 
However, these features are currently limited to American, Delta, and United Airlines.Soon google may include other airlines data too to predict  in flight status using Artificial Intelligence algorithm.
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Scientists develop artificial synapse: A new type of artificial intelligence

Superconducting artificial synapse developed by NIST has been a crucial element missing in neuromorphic AI super computers

Researchers at The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the US have developed a artificial superconducting synapse that learns like a biological system and could connect processors and store memories in future computers operating like the human brain. It has been a missing element in neuromorphic computers.

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target cell.).It is a connection or switch between two brain cells The synapse is widely believed to be integral for both learning and memory. With approximately 10^15 synapses in the human brain, it is a critical component of neural circuitry.In human brain learning happens by altering behavior of the junction between neurons(synapse).

Neuromorphic computing, is a concept developed by Carver Mead, in the late 1980s, describing the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system.

This superconducting synapse switch can be envisioned as a new type of artificial intelligence, such computers could boost perception and decision-making for applications such as self-driving cars and cancer diagnosis.

Structure of superconducting artificial synapse

The NIST synapse is a Josephson junction.These junctions are a sandwich of superconducting materials with an insulator as a filling.

Josephson junction (JJ) is a device which allows a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied.Such type of devices consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link. The weak link can consist of a thin insulating barrier (known as a superconductor–insulator–superconductor junction, or S-I-S), a short section of non-superconducting metal (S-N-S), or a physical constriction that weakens the superconductivity at the point of contact (S-s-S).

The synapse uses standard niobium electrodes and a unique filling made of nanoscale clusters of manganese in a silicon matrix.The nanoclusters—about 20,000 per square micrometer—act like tiny bar magnets.

How does NIST’s artificial synapse works

Our brain performs computation by sending electrochemical signals between neurons. The transmission of these signals is controlled by the synapse, tiny junction between two neurons.
The receptivity of the synapse determines if the post-synaptic neuron 'spikes' in response to a signal.

If the signal is not strong enough the post-synaptic neuron won't fire.
As more signals are sent, the synapse becomes more receptive. This strengthens the neural connectivity enabling learning.
To build computers that mimic the brain, researchers want to build artificial synapses. This requires two things.Spiking behavior and ability to learn.
To provide the spiking behavior the NIST design uses a Josephson junction (JJ), a device made of two superconductors separated by an insulating layer.
When a current of sufficient strength is run through the junction it produces low voltage spikes.
When the current is lower than the 'critical current' there is no response.
To manipulate the critical current , researchers embedded magnetic nano clusters into the insulating layers.These nanoclusters behave like bar magnets, each polarized along a magnetic axis.
When magnets are disordered critical current remains high. By applying current pulses in an applied magnetic field the order of the cluster can be increased.
This reduces the critical current meaning the junction will exhibit spiking behavior for lower currents.
Strengthening the connection between input and output enables the synapse to 'learn' just like a neural synapse.

“The NIST synapse has lower energy needs than the human synapse, and we don’t know of any other artificial synapse that uses less energy,” NIST physicist Mike Schneider said.

The new synapse would be used in neuromorphic computers made of superconducting components, which can transmit electricity without resistance, and therefore, would be more efficient than other designs based on semiconductors or software. Data would be transmitted, processed and stored in units of magnetic flux. Superconducting devices mimicking brain cells and transmission lines have been developed, but until now, efficient synapses—a crucial piece—have been missing.
Watch video..
Video&Image credit NIST
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What is augmented reality and how does it work?

AR Augmented Reality
AR is nothing but overlaying virtual objects on real world
Content Highlights
  • Augmented meaning & Augmented reality definition
  • What is the difference between AR and VR?
  • How does augmented reality works?
  • AR on smartphones and other devices
  • Classification of Augmented Reality
  • Application and uses of Augmented Reality in various fields

What is augmented Reality

Augmented reality is a direct or indirect view and experience of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information.
The word Augmented means 'to increase the size or value of something by adding something to it'.
AR enhances our real surroundings with graphics, sounds, and other feedback.

The first functional AR system named 'Virtual Fixtures' was developed by U.S. Air Force's Armstrong Labs in 1992.
Early Augmented Reality experiences were used in the entertainment and gaming, but now AR is applied in knowledge sharing, educating, managing the information flood and organizing distant meetings etc..

Difference between VR and AR?Augmented reality means adding virtual elements to the real world. Augmented reality is often confused with Virtual Reality.Though they are two similar techs but there are some key differences. Virtual reality immerses you entirely into a virtual world, whereas augmented reality simply overlays virtual elements onto the real world. VR and AR are not two competing technologies. Moreover they are complementary to each other.

How Does Augmented Reality Work? 

AR is not a single technology. It is a combination of techniques.Based on it's area of application it's achieved by set of Hardware and Software.

Hardware components for augmented reality are
1Computer or processing unit
2.Display or projectors
3.Sensors and Cameras
4.Tracking devices

Display or Projection

AR visuals can be rendered optical projection systems, monitors, handheld devices, and display systems worn on the human body.

Head-mounted display (HMD) and Smart glasses:HMD is a display device worn on the forehead. Working principal of an HMD is very simple. It combines images of both the physical world and virtual objects over the user's field of view.HMDs often employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world and adjust accordingly with the user's head movements.

Optical Projection System:Optical projectors used in AR can produce 2D or 3D illusion of an object over real world. 3D projection can be achieved in number of ways.

1.Either by usual 3D technology which requires polaizer glasses and feeding each eye with slightly different images
2.Holographic 3D projection
3.3D scanned images presented using projectors which are capable of variable images of the same object by tracking our eyes movement.

AR on Handheld devices and Smart Phones

AR on hand held devices can be classified into two. Marker based and Marker-less AR
Marker Based Augmented Reality
marker based augmented reality
Marker based AR recognizes patterns drawn on surfaces and overlay corresponding images on real objects
Marker-based augmented reality (also called Image Recognition) uses a camera and some type of visual marker, such as a QR/2D code, to produce a result only when the marker is sensed by a reader. Marker based applications use a camera on the device to distinguish a marker from any other real world object and some type of content and/or information is then overlaid the marker.
Markerless Augmented Reality
markerless augmented reality
Example of  markerless position based AR application
Markerless (also called location-based, position-based, or GPS) augmented reality, uses a GPS, digital compass, velocity meter, or accelerometer which is embedded in the device to provide data based on your location.With the advent of smartphones this type of Augmented Reality gained wider popularity.This type of AR is mainly used for mapping directions, finding nearby businesses, and other location-centric mobile applications.

Applications of Augmented Reality

AR Apps for Navigation

AR based navigation app
AR aided Navigation App
GPS application on your device uses augmented reality to make it easier to get from point A to point B.It augment your current position on the map.Using the smartphone's camera in combination with the GPS, users see the selected route over the live view of what is in front of the car.Position based marker-less AR comes under this.

The Heads-Up Display (HUD) for pilots

AR The Heads-Up Display (HUD) for pilots
HUD for pilots
This is a typical example of augmented reality application. A transparent display is positioned directly in the  pilot's view. Data typically displayed to the pilot includes altitude, airspeed and the horizon line in addition to other critical data.Pilot need not look down into display consoles for the information.

Presentation of food items in restaurants.

Following video will give you an idea of what AR technology is capable of. This device's developers HoloLamp claims that 'HoloLamp is an award winning startup, which proposes the world’s first glasses-free and hands-free portable augmented reality device that creates optical 3D illusions directly on your environment 'HoloLamp technology is based on advanced projection technology, computer vision and machine learning.


Tourism industries

The ability to augment a live view of displays in a museum with facts and figures is a natural use of the technology. Using a smartphone equipped with a camera, tourists can walk through historic sites and see facts and figures presented as an overlay on their live screen. These applications use GPS and image recognition technology to look up data from an online database.

Architecture

AR in architecture
AR can aid in visualizing building and other structural projects. Computer-generated images of a structure can be superimposed into a real life local view of a property before the physical building is constructed there.

Archaeology

Application of Augmented Reality in archeology
AR apps helps to visualize partially destroyed ancient structures
By augmenting archaeological features onto the modern landscape, AR allows archaeologists to formulate possible site configurations from extant structures.Computer generated models of buildings,structures and landscapes enables them to visualize the ancient time in a better way.

Video games

AR games
AR based games 
At present gaming industry is on of the main beneficiary of the AR technology. Not only the kids,but also the adults will also get addicted to AR games out there. Smartphone camera enables you to use real world as your game field. Racing games and shooting games are just awesome with AR.

AR in medical field

AR in medical field
AR in surgery and visualizing human anatomy
AR aided presentations are helpful to medical students to visualize human anatomy.AR technology also help them to practice surgery in a controlled environment.Augmented reality can reduce the risk of an operation by giving the surgeon improved sensory perception. This technology can be combined with MRI or X-ray systems and bring everything into a single view for the surgeon.
The ability to image the organs in 3D on top of the patient's actual anatomy is powerful for the surgeon.

AdvertisingAugmented Reality advertisements

Ad companies also have started exploiting AR technology for better user experience and increased attention from the audience. Marker Based Augmented Reality can be used to augment information on particular products. By scanning a pattern(QR,Bar codes or other patterns or picture) drawn on the surface of the the product or booklets can overlay required information and details about that product.
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Artificial Intelligence enabled products and technolgy launched at CES 2018

Artificial Intelligence at CES 2018 Las Vegas

CES 2018 has witnessed lot of applications of Artificial Intelligence. We have picked few worth noticing.

Sony's Aibo robot dog

Sony presented it's latest version of Aibo robot dog - and it's cuter than ever. Sony says it relies on sophisticated sensors and AI programming. The Aibo senses its surroundings, and not just to avoid objects. The little puppy tries to mimic the movement and activities of a real dog.

Aibo responds to touch on three specific areas: on its head, back and under its chin.It's cuteness can't be explained. Watch it below

Self-driving travel bag

CES 2018 witnessed another funny, same time innovative product self driving travel bag CX-1 luanched by China’s ForwardX Robotics. It is first of kind for sure. Four-wheeled travel bag can automatically follows its user around the airports and other places.
cx 1 self driving suitcase
CX-1 self driving travel bag mad by ForwardX Robotics
The smart bag uses cameras and AI(Artificial Intelligence) algorithm to avoid crashes.170-degree wide angle lens and built-in facial recognition software, which allow the device to follow you at up to 7 miles per hour throughout the terminal .Smart wrist band will notify if it gets too far away or when the battery power gets low.

Intel-Ferrari AI partnership for sports broadcasts

At CES 2018, Intel's artificial intelligence and Ferrari, announced partnership in creation and distribution of sports broadcast content , that involve aerial footage captured via drones, which will then be mixed and curated to create personalised feeds.

Announced by Intel CEO Brian Krzanich during his CES 2018 keynote, the three-year partnership with Ferrari North America will see Intel AI tech including the Intel Xeon scalable platform and the Neon Framework used, along with aerial footage captured by Intel drones.

Infrastructure cost inherent in deploying fixed cameras around each track throughout the race calendar is a huge amount.This can be made lot cheaper by using drones and then using AI on top of it.Multiple camera feeds from drones will stream this to a central source, with the AI then mixing and cutting the feeds together.

Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant

AI enabled Google assistant and amazon alexa
Google Assistant& Amazon Alexa Smart Speakers
Amazon and Google presented their latest version of AI enabled voice assistance at CES 2018. Lot of smart speakers were presented at CES 2018. Currently Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant is open to other companies also. These enables them to come out with more innovative products.

Byton Autonomous Electric Vehicle

byton autonomous smart electric car
Byton autonomous smart car 'Concept'
Chinese firm Byton presented their smart electric car at CES 2018 Las Vegas. Manufacturer has focused mainly on smart power rather than horsepower. It features a large touch screen covering entire dashboard area. Byton smart car comes with gesture control system.At launch, Byton says it will include Level 3 self-driving capability, which means the car can drive itself in many situations, but a human driver will have to take control for some. The car will be technically capable of Level 4 self-driving, which means it can handle all driving tasks, a feature that Byton can make available once government regulations permit.Artificial Intelligence is one of the main contributor in achieving autonomous drive.

Hyundai's 'Intelligent Personal Agent'

South Korean Automobile giant Hyundai introduced their 'Intelligent Personal Agent', a voice-enabled virtual assistant system at CES 2018 Las Vegas.Intelligent Personal Agent, co-developed with SoundHound, to be deployed in new models in 2019.System serves as a proactive assistant, predicting driver needs and facilitating vehicle functions.AI enabled Advanced technology can be optimized for future connected car data demands.
hyandai intelligent personal agent for connected cars
Hyundai car concept with Intelligent Personal Agent
A lot more AI supported products, especially wide range of robots were launched during CES 2018.
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micro-LED: Display Technology that can revolutionize our viewing experience

micro-LED latest display technolgy:What is it? What are it's advantages and disadvantages and current trends

samsung's microLED modular TV The Wall
Samsung's first micro-LED based Modular TV 'The Wall' unveiled at CES 2018
Content Highlights
  • Structure of LED panel displays
  • LCD,LED,OLED and mLED
  • Structure of a microLED
  • Pros and Cons of micro-LED technology
  • Current trend in micro-LED 

MicroLED is the latest in he emerging display technologies .Starting from CRT, through LCD,LED ,OLED and mLED, display technology is evolving at higher speed. mLED displays consist of arrays of microscopic LEDs forming the individual pixel elements. It has got lot of advantages over other existing display technologies.

Micro LED was first realised by in the year 2000 by a research group run by Prof. Hongxing Jiang and Prof. Jingyu Lin of the Texas Tech University.

Let us recall the basic structure of LED display.
An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video/picture display.As you know an LED( light-emitting diode) is a p-n junction which emits light when electric current is passed through it.In an LED dispaly panel , these LEDs are shrunk down dramatically and arranged in red, green and blue clusters to create an individual pixel that can reproduce white light and various colors.

LED V/s LED back-lit LCD V/s OLED V/s micro-LED

LED displays are used in large displays like leaderboards,advertising pannels etcc.  LED TVs and Smartphones displays are usually LCD with LED back-light. Usually consumers think that LED TVs have LED display. It is LED backlit LCD. But, OLED and micro-LED ae self illuminating.

In an OLED(Organic Light Emitting Diode), a thin layer of organic material is placed between two conductors, which is then used to produce light when a current is applied.At least one of these electrodes is transparent.Properties of these organic material is analogous to semiconductors.

Micro-LED isn't a new display technology, this technology is a solution to the problem faced by panel manufacturers.It helped them to mass transfer and bond million of tiny LEDs in a minimum area.Individual micro-LEDs usually ranges from 1 to 10 μm, and are transferred in large volumes onto the display substrate.

Structure of a single  µLED 

structure of micro LED
microLED light extracting structure(image courtesy infiniled )
MicroLED (µLED) is formed by the integration of light control elements directly with light producing source. This optical component results in a high extraction efficiency and all the light exiting through a single surface of the LEDs.The MicroLED ( µLED) is optimised for flip-chip mounting. This results in excellent heat-sinking of the device and reduced thermal effects in the light source.
conventional LED vs microLED
conventional LED Die Vs µLED
Above design was patented by infiLED later acquired by Oculus. In their design parabolic reflectors collimates the light and directs it through a single surface of the device. Larger illumination areas can be obtained by densely packing and filling a die with the parabolic structures, effectively giving a MicroLED cluster or LED with all the pixels working in concert.
microled pannel structure
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of an array of shaped μLEDs

 Advantages of micro-LED over TFT-LCD and OLED displays

-High contrast ratio. In backlit TFT-LCD panels complete black is not possible.Black is represented by dark grey only. This is because back-light cannot be switched off it completely. But microLED is self illuminating. So pure black can be obtained by switching off the individual micro-LED. This is one of the main advantage of micro-LED displays.

-Improved brightness to power (lux/W) efficiency, meaning that the same panel brightness can be achieved for lower power.Power consumption can be 90 percent lower than LCD and up to 50 percent lower than OLED

-Micro-LED displays will also offer a longer lifespan than current OLED panels. Lifespan of the organic materials used to make the blue OLED is limited.

-Higer resolution in compact form and higher PPI. This makes them perfect for smartphones and VR displays

-High response times in the ns (microsecond) range.This feature make them suitable for VR headsets.

-Suitable for flexible displays.It's tiny structure can be deposited on a flexible substrate to form flexible display panels. Unlike TFT-LCD and OLED , damage would be minimum on bending or rolling.

Disadvantages of micro-LED pannels

-Micro-LED panels are expected to be considerably more expensive, possibly three to four times higher than current LCD and OLED panels.This will fall in time, but it will slow down the investments.

Current trends in micro-LED panels

2010 onwards , manufacturers are aggressively behind micro-LED display technology R&D. Manufacturers leading in micro-LED patent applications include Apple affiliated Luxvue, Mikro Mesa, Sony, Leti and others.
-Sony launched its 55-inch “Crystal LED Display” in 2012, a new micro LED display technology utilizing Full HD Resolution. The display uses about 6.22 million micro LEDs
-Samsung unveiled its first MicroLED TV at CES 2018, the 146-inch "The Wall" 4K TV.
Commercial launch of large microLED panels would take some time since manufactures have to limit the cost within a limit to make it suitable for consumer electronic devices.
-Mass transfer is a critical technology for Micro LED manufacturing, transferring Micro LED to a target backplane quickly and accurately will be one of the topics that manufacturers need to work on the most.
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