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Showing posts with label News. Show all posts
Showing posts with label News. Show all posts

'Facebook researchers shut down AI bots after they developed their own language':Reality or Hype?

'Facebook researchers shut down AI bots after they developed their own language'.This was the sensational news of the last week.

This news, in some people’s minds brought up images of Skynet, the fictional AI network in the Terminator film series that became self-aware and set out to destroy the human race in the interests of self-preservation or iRobots,intelligent robots who turn against their own creators for self interests.
But AI(Artificial Intelligence) is that much advanced??


Image result for face book shutdown it AI bots
Here is the abstract of the story that appeared in leading online news channels.
Facebook abandoned an experiment after two artificially intelligent programs appeared to be chatting to each other in a strange language only they understood.
The two chatbots came to create their own changes to English that made it easier for them to work – but which remained mysterious to the humans that supposedly look after them.
The bizarre discussions came as Facebook challenged its chatbots to try and negotiate with each other over a trade, attempting to swap hats, balls and books, each of which were given a certain value. But they quickly broke down as the robots appeared to chant at each other in a language that they each understood but which appears mostly incomprehensible to humans.
The robots had been instructed to work out how to negotiate between themselves, and improve their bartering as they went along. But they were not told to use comprehensible English, allowing them to create their own "shorthand", according to researchers.(Read it own independent.co.uk)
Chat was like this :

Bob: i can i i everything else . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alice: balls have zero to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to me toBob: you i everything else . . . . . . . . .

Alice: balls have a ball to me to me to me to me to me to me to me

Bob: i i can i i i everything else . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Alice: balls have a ball to me to me to me to me to me to me to me

Bob: i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Alice: balls have zero to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to
Bob: you i i i i i everything else . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alice: balls have 0 to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to
Bob: you i i i everything else . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alice: balls have zero to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to me to

This conversation occurred between two AI agents developed inside Facebook. At first, they were speaking to each other in plain old English. But then researchers realized they’d made a mistake in programming.

This is what facebook AI researchers telling about AI negotiating agents.
Two agents are both shown the same collection of items (say two books, one hat, three balls) and are instructed to divide them between themselves by negotiating a split of the items.
“Agents will drift off understandable language and invent codewords for themselves,” says Batra, speaking to a now-predictable phenomenon that’s been observed again, and again, and again. “Like if I say ‘the’ five times, you interpret that to mean I want five copies of this item. This isn’t so different from the way communities of humans create shorthands.”

But is there anything thing to panic about that?

FB AI study’s lead author, Michael Lewis, told snopes.com
"While they were initially trained to communicate in English, in some initial experiments we only reward them for achieving their goal, not for using good English. This meant that after thousands of conversations with each other, they started using words in ways that people wouldn’t. In some sense, they had a simple language that they could use to communicate with each other, but was hard for people to understand. This was not important or particularly surprising, and in future experiments we used some established techniques to reward them for using English correctly. There have also been a number of papers from other research groups on methods for making AIs invent simple languages from scratch.
There was no panic, and the project hasn’t been shut down. Our goal was to build bots that could communicate with people. In some experiments, we found that they weren’t using English words as people do — so we stopped those experiments, and used some additional techniques to get the bots to work as we wanted. Analyzing the reward function and changing the parameters of an experiment is NOT the same as “unplugging” or “shutting down AI.” If that were the case, every AI researcher has been “shutting down AI” every time they stop a job on a machine.

These AI ChatBots where designed to negotiate with humans. But they started to deviate from their task.They should have communicate with each other like they communicate with a human being.Actually this was nothing but a glitch in program. But medias out there were talking like "they invented their own secrete language with the intention of cheating human ". Project hasn’t been called off.It will be continued with required modifications.

This news was actually a clickbait. Media always want sensationalism, for that they use attractive and terrifying headlines with much hype.

Leading tech companies like Apple, Amazon, Google, IBM and Microsoft are having their own team for Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning researches.
Artificial intelligence is great, but it needs some ethical supervision in order to benefit everyone.A Partnership on AI was officially unveiled back in September 2016. At the time, Amazon, Facebook, Google, IBM and Microsoft were the only founding members. Later companies like Apple,Twitter joined them.The companies could write about ethics, inclusivity and privacy as these are hot topics.

Right now,people are terrified of AI project and nightmarish scenarios around it.But what everyone fails to appreciate is that human beings are the most adaptable, clever, and aggressive predators in the known universe.The best survivors. Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning are in infant stages now. Even if some machines gone mad, we will have a solution then.
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How does wireless charging work?

Basic principle behind wireless charging is inductive coupling between charger and device

How does wireless charging works
Mobile with wireless charger
Content Highlights

  • How do wireless chargers work? 
  • Wireless charger circuit schematic diagram 
  • Applications of wireless charging technology 
  • Wireless charging interface standards (Qi standard) 
  • Devices with wireless charging
  • wireless charging distance
  • Advantages and benefits of wireless/inductive charging


Many modern gadgets are now switching to wireless charging.Laptop manufactures have also also welcomed this technology.Recently Dell unveiled First Wireless Charging Laptop  (Dell's 2-in-1 Latitude 7285)in CES 2017.Latest apple and samsung devices are also equiped with wireless charging support.You ever wonder 'how does wireless charging works?'.Wireless charging (Inductive charging )uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects through electromagnetic induction.Energy is transferred through an inductive coupling to an electrical device, which can then use that energy to charge batteries or run the device.

Working of wireless chargers

You might have heard of the word 'resonance' .Resonance is a phenomenon that occurs in nature in many different forms. In general,resonance involves energy oscillating between two modes.In a system at resonance, it is possible to have a large build up of stored energy while having only a weak excitation to the system. The build-up occurs if the rate of energy injection into the system is greater than the rate of energy loss by the system.
wireless charging resonance circuit layout
An electrical/electronic resonator circuit.

Above figure represents a electrical resonator.L=inductance,R=Resistance and C=Capacitance.Resonant frequency of above circuit is given by

wireless charging resonance formula

Resonant frequency is the frequency at which maximum energy is stored in the system,If two resonators are placed in proximity to one another such that there is coupling between them, it becomes possible for the resonators to exchange energy. The efficiency of the energy exchange depends on the characteristic parameters for each resonator .Maximum energy is transferred when frequency of two resonators are same.By varying L and C ,frequency can be varied. Let Ls be the inductance coil connected to the power source Vs, and Lr is the receiver coil.When a current is passed through Ls,it creates a magnetic field around Ls.This varying magnetic field causes current flow through Lr.Thus,energy gets transferred between coils via electromagnetic induction.At resonance this energy transfer will touch it's peak.

wireless charing witricity circuit
 Two resonators are placed in proximity
Practical circuit for wireless charging applications are given below.The current induced in the receiver coil will flow through the battery connected across,and the energy gets stored in this battery.
Practical circuit for wireless charging applications
Practical circuit for wireless charging applications

Applications of wireless charging

Consumer Electronics

dell 7285 with wireless charger
Dell's 2-in-1 Latitude 7285 with wireless charging
Wireless chargers for portable consumer electronics like mobile phones,laptops,tablets,smartwatches etc..

Medical Devices

medical applications of wireless charger
Application of wireless charging in medical equipment
For charging  implanted medical devices including heart assist pumps, pacemakers, and infusion pumps etc..

Electric Vehicles

For charging full electric and hybrid vehicles.
wireless charging in electric vehicles
Wireless charging in electrical vehicles

LED Lighting

wireless LED lamp
Powering LED lamps using wireless energy transfer
LED (light emitting diode) lights can be directly powered with wireless electricity, eliminating
the need for batteries in under-cabinet task lighting, and enabling architectural lighting designers to create products that seemingly float in mid-air, with no power cord

Defense Systems

Designers of defense systems are able to utilize wireless charging to improve the reliability, ergonomics, and safety of electronic devices

Qi (standard)

Qi (pronounced 'chee ' meaning "natural energy") is an open interface standard developed by the Wireless Power Consortium for inductive charging over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches). The system uses a charging pad and a compatible device, which is placed on top of the pad, charging via resonant inductive coupling.
Mobile device manufacturers that are working with the standard include Asus, HTC, Huawei, LG , Motorola ,Nokia, Samsung, BlackBerry, and Sony.

Devices having inbuilt wireless charging feature(Qi standard)

  • Samsung Galaxy: S7, S7 Edge, Note 5, S6, S6 Edge
  • Microsoft Lumia: 1520, 1020, 930, 929, 928, 920
  • Google Nexus: 4, 5, 6, 7 (2013)
  • BlackBerry: Priv
For the list of devices given above you just need to buy a wireless charger.

Devices capable of wireless charging with the help of an adapter

  • Apple: iPhone 7, iPhone 7 Plus, iPhone SE, iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus, iPhone 5S
  • Samsung: Galaxy S5, Galaxy S4, Galaxy S3, Galaxy Note 3, Galaxy Note 2
  • Microsoft: Lumia 930, Lumia 925, Lumia 830
  • Sony: Xperia Z3, Xperia Z2, Xperia Z
iphone wireless charging back cover
iPhone wireless charging back cover

If your phone is in the above list, you need the accessory linked and a wireless charging pad.

Universal wireless charging adapters

If your phone doesn't support wireless charging,need not worry,you just need a universal adapter and a wireless charger. You can get these for phones with Micro USB ports (e.g. Android) and Lightning ports (e.g. iPhone).
wireless charging adaptors
Maxfield and aircharge adaptors
There are two type of universal adapters available in the market.Internal adapter, which slides into the back of a case, and an external adapter, which hangs outside. Maxfield is the leading producer of internal adpater and aircharge is the front runner in the external wireless charging adapters.

iphone 6 and maxfield wireless charging adaptor
Without any hardware modification you can charge your iphone 6 in wireless mode by connecting maxfield adaptor.

Wireless charging Distance between Charging pad and device

Wireless charging much more hassle free than wired one, but still requires the device be in physical contact with its station to actually work. That's about to change now that the Federal Communications Commission has approved the first wireless charger that works from up to three feet away.Wireless charging "at a distance" on its way to smartphones and other handheld devices.

Wireless charging:Technology Benefits

  • Make devices more convenient and thus more desirable to purchasers, by eliminating the need for a power cord.
  • Make devices more reliable by eliminating the most failure prone component in most electronic systems—the cords and connectors.
  • Make devices safer by eliminating the sparking hazard associated with conductive interconnections.
  • Reduce system cost by leveraging the ability to power multiple devices from a single source resonator.
Wireless charging and wireless power transfer technology is going to make a revolution in the consumer electronics as well as electrical appliances in coming days.A company named WiTricity specialized in wireless power solution is all ready out there in the market.More companies are coming into this field.We can expect some innovative products and technologies from such firms soon.
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Atomic clock -World's most accurate clock-How does it works?

Atomic clock is the most accurate clock:how does an atomic clock work

How does world's most accurate atomic clock works
NIST-F1 would neither gain nor lose one second in about 100 million years
Content Highlights
  • Types of clocks and basic principle behind a clock.
  • What is a atomic clock?
  • Principle behind an atomic clock
  • How does an  Atomic Clock works?
  • NIST-F1 Cesium Fountain Clock
  • Definition of a second
  • Applications of atomic clocks


Before going into the atomic clock, let us see what a clock really is. A clock's job is to measure passage of time. All clocks do this by measuring some sort of resonation of one or another material. Let us have look at some commonly used clocks.
pendulum clock :In a pendulum clock, the resonator is a pendulum and the gears in the clock keep track of time by counting the resonations (swinging) of the pendulum. The pendulum resonates at a frequency of one swing per second.
Digital clock: It either measures oscillations on power line or oscillation provided by an electronics circuit. In US power supply oscillates at 60 cycles per second and in Europe and Asia power supply oscillates at 50 cycles per second.
Quartz clock: In this type of clocks ,on supply of electric current quartz crystal oscillates at a particular frequency. This resonating frequency is converted into measurable form with the help of gears.

What is an atomic clock

NIST Atomic clock
the NIST-F1 in Boulder, Colorado
In an atomic clock an ‘atom’ or a ‘molecule’ is the resonator. In every clock accuracy of resonator determines accuracy of time. An atom resonates at extremely consistent frequency. This ensures the accuracy of an atomic clock. In all other clocks resonator is manufactured, so, there is limitation in accuracy that can be obtained from such resonators.

Basic principle behind an atomic clock

When exposed to certain frequencies of radiation, such as radio waves or microwaves the electrons that orbit an atom's nucleus will "jump" back and forth between energy states. The electrons absorb energy to move to a higher energy level (away from the nucleus), and release energy to move down an energy level (towards the nucleus). This “jumping” happens at extremely consistent frequency .Clocks based on this jumping within atoms can therefore provide an extremely precise way to count seconds.
Commonly used atoms in an atomic clock: Currently caesium (33Cs) is the widely used one,but rubidium (87Rb) and thallium (205Tl) were used earlier.

Working of an Atomic clock.

There are many atomic clocks around the world. Out of which, NIST-F1 Cesium Fountain Clock is one among the most accurate clocks.It is developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S. Department of commerce) . The uncertainty of NIST-F1 is continually improving. As of January 2013, the uncertainty has been reduced to about 3 x 10-16, which means it would neither gain nor lose a second in more than 100 million years .NIST-F1 is referred to as a fountain clock because it uses a fountain-like movement of atoms to measure frequency and time interval.
Working of atomic clock diagram
Diagrammatic representation of a an atomic clock 
Laser cooling: We know that a moving atom possess higher energy than the stationary one. To restrict the movement of cesium atoms a technique called LASER cooling is used in NIST-F1 clock. First, a gas of cesium atoms is introduced into the clock's vacuum chamber. Six infrared laser beams then are directed at right angles to each other at the center of the chamber. The lasers gently push the cesium atoms together into a ball. In the process of creating this ball, the lasers slow down the movement of the atoms . Laser cooling drops the temperature of the atoms to a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero, and reduces their thermal velocity to a few centimeters per second

working of atomic clock diagram
laser cooling-atoms are stabilized
using six laser beams 

Two vertical lasers are used to gently toss the ball upward (the "fountain" action), and then all of the lasers are turned off. This little push is just enough to loft the ball about a meter high through a microwave-filled cavity. Under the influence of gravity, the ball then falls back down through the microwave cavity.
Working of atomic clock diagram
a ball of atoms tossed up by
laser beams
Working of atomic clock diagram
when laser is turned off ,atoms fall down
due to gravity

The round trip up and down through the microwave cavity lasts for about 1 second. During the trip, the atomic states of the atoms might or might not be altered as they interact with the microwave signal. When their trip is finished, another laser is pointed at the atoms. Those atoms whose atomic state were altered by the microwave signal emit light (a state known as fluorescence). The photons, or the tiny packets of light that they emit, are measured by a detector.
Working princicple of atomic clock diagram
Detection of photons emitted by caesium atoms
This process is repeated many times while the microwave signal in the cavity is tuned to different frequencies. Eventually, a microwave frequency is found that alters the states of most of the cesium atoms and maximizes their fluorescence. This frequency is the natural resonance frequency of the cesium atom (9,192,631,770 Hz), or the frequency used to define the second.
Definition of a second: According to The International System of Units (SI) "The second is the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom. This definition refers to a caesium atom at rest at a temperature of 0 K "

Applications of atomic clocks 

What is the need of an atomic clock?..It has got many applications in our life.Some of them are listed below.
1.GPS and similar navigation systems:In GPS our position is calculated based on the time taken by the signal to travel between GPS satellites and receiver. To determine position with high precision even billionths of a second is significant. 
2. Telecommunications systems require synchronization better than 100 billionths of a second .
3. Electrical power companies use synchronized systems to accurately determine the location of faults (for example, lightning damage) when they occur and to control the stability of their distribution systems.
4. In space exploration, radio observations of distant objects in the universe, require exceedingly good atomic reference clocks. And navigation of probes within our solar system depends critically on well-synchronized control stations on earth.
5. The time-related quantity called frequency, basically the rate at which a clock runs, is needed by the radio and television broadcast industry to maintain proper control of transmissions and thus avoid interference between stations.
6.Using the internet every computer can synchronize its time setting with a centralized time server – the atomic clock time server – so that all the computer times all around the world can use standardized settings, even though they are scattered through different time zones. Most operating systems (i.e. Windows, Mac, Linux) have an option to automatically synchronize the system clock periodically using an NTP (network time protocol) server: NIST is offering a network time service to deliver UT1(Universal Time) time.

Still atomic clock researches are going around the globe .And scientists are coming up with more and more accurate atomic clocks.
References:
  1. NIST Cesium Fountains — Current Status and Future Prospects S.R. Jefferts∗ , T.P. Heavner, T.E. Parker and J.H. Shirley http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/PDF/112/a112z506.pdf 
  2.  https://www.nist.gov
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