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Showing posts with label display. Show all posts
Showing posts with label display. Show all posts

Saturday, 13 January 2018

micro-LED: Display Technology that can revolutionize our viewing experience

micro-LED latest display technolgy:What is it? What are it's advantages and disadvantages and current trends

samsung's microLED modular TV The Wall
Samsung's first micro-LED based Modular TV 'The Wall' unveiled at CES 2018
Content Highlights
  • Structure of LED panel displays
  • Structure of a microLED
  • Pros and Cons of micro-LED technology
  • Current trend in micro-LED 

MicroLED is the latest in he emerging display technologies .Starting from CRT, through LCD,LED ,OLED and mLED, display technology is evolving at higher speed. mLED displays consist of arrays of microscopic LEDs forming the individual pixel elements. It has got lot of advantages over other existing display technologies.

Micro LED was first realised by in the year 2000 by a research group run by Prof. Hongxing Jiang and Prof. Jingyu Lin of the Texas Tech University.

Let us recall the basic structure of LED display.
An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video/picture display.As you know an LED( light-emitting diode) is a p-n junction which emits light when electric current is passed through it.In an LED dispaly panel , these LEDs are shrunk down dramatically and arranged in red, green and blue clusters to create an individual pixel that can reproduce white light and various colors.

LED V/s LED back-lit LCD V/s OLED V/s micro-LED

LED displays are used in large displays like leaderboards,advertising pannels etcc.  LED TVs and Smartphones displays are usually LCD with LED back-light. Usually consumers think that LED TVs have LED display. It is LED backlit LCD. But, OLED and micro-LED ae self illuminating.

In an OLED(Organic Light Emitting Diode), a thin layer of organic material is placed between two conductors, which is then used to produce light when a current is applied.At least one of these electrodes is transparent.Properties of these organic material is analogous to semiconductors.

Micro-LED isn't a new display technology, this technology is a solution to the problem faced by panel manufacturers.It helped them to mass transfer and bond million of tiny LEDs in a minimum area.Individual micro-LEDs usually ranges from 1 to 10 μm, and are transferred in large volumes onto the display substrate.

Structure of a single  µLED 

structure of micro LED
microLED light extracting structure(image courtesy infiniled )
MicroLED (µLED) is formed by the integration of light control elements directly with light producing source. This optical component results in a high extraction efficiency and all the light exiting through a single surface of the LEDs.The MicroLED ( µLED) is optimised for flip-chip mounting. This results in excellent heat-sinking of the device and reduced thermal effects in the light source.
conventional LED vs microLED
conventional LED Die Vs µLED
Above design was patented by infiLED later acquired by Oculus. In their design parabolic reflectors collimates the light and directs it through a single surface of the device. Larger illumination areas can be obtained by densely packing and filling a die with the parabolic structures, effectively giving a MicroLED cluster or LED with all the pixels working in concert.
microled pannel structure
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of an array of shaped μLEDs

 Advantages of micro-LED over TFT-LCD and OLED displays

-High contrast ratio. In backlit TFT-LCD panels complete black is not possible.Black is represented by dark grey only. This is because back-light cannot be switched off it completely. But microLED is self illuminating. So pure black can be obtained by switching off the individual micro-LED. This is one of the main advantage of micro-LED displays.

-Improved brightness to power (lux/W) efficiency, meaning that the same panel brightness can be achieved for lower power.Power consumption can be 90 percent lower than LCD and up to 50 percent lower than OLED

-Micro-LED displays will also offer a longer lifespan than current OLED panels. Lifespan of the organic materials used to make the blue OLED is limited.

-Higer resolution in compact form and higher PPI. This makes them perfect for smartphones and VR displays

-High response times in the ns (microsecond) range.This feature make them suitable for VR headsets.

-Suitable for flexible displays.It's tiny structure can be deposited on a flexible substrate to form flexible display panels. Unlike TFT-LCD and OLED , damage would be minimum on bending or rolling.

Disadvantages of micro-LED pannels

-Micro-LED panels are expected to be considerably more expensive, possibly three to four times higher than current LCD and OLED panels.This will fall in time, but it will slow down the investments.

Current trends in micro-LED panels

2010 onwards , manufacturers are aggressively behind micro-LED display technology R&D. Manufacturers leading in micro-LED patent applications include Apple affiliated Luxvue, Mikro Mesa, Sony, Leti and others.
-Sony launched its 55-inch “Crystal LED Display” in 2012, a new micro LED display technology utilizing Full HD Resolution. The display uses about 6.22 million micro LEDs
-Samsung unveiled its first MicroLED TV at CES 2018, the 146-inch "The Wall" 4K TV.
Commercial launch of large microLED panels would take some time since manufactures have to limit the cost within a limit to make it suitable for consumer electronic devices.
-Mass transfer is a critical technology for Micro LED manufacturing, transferring Micro LED to a target backplane quickly and accurately will be one of the topics that manufacturers need to work on the most.

Saturday, 9 December 2017

Flexible Mobile Phone displays: Rumours and realities

Flexible,foldable,rollable displays:When it will hit the market?Reality check and rumours.

LG flexible display
LG flexible display

Content Highlights
  • First bendable e-paper (Gyricon)
  • Samsung bendable smartphone
  • Samsung Galaxy X  rumors 
  • LG flexible display
  • Apple's patent application for flexible display concept
  • Lenovo bendable phone CPlus
  • ITRI and BOE flexible display prototypes

Every smartphone lover is waiting for a smartphone that can be folded or rolled like paper.Let us have check at how long we have to wait for such a product.

First Flexible Display

Flexible electronic paper (e-paper) based displays were the first flexible displays conceptualized and prototyped. This form of flexible displays has a long history.Many companies attempted but failed to design slated for mass production that can be used in consumer electronics. One of the notable among such prototypes was Gyricon put forth by Xerox PARC. Still mass production of e-paper  is expensive.
Gyricon flexible e-paper
flexible e-paper

How Gyricon e-paper works?

Gyricon contains a lots of small spherical beads, sandwiched in between two thin transparent plastic sheet.The beads, each contained in an oil-filled cavity, are free to rotate within those cavities. The beads are "bichromal", with hemispheres of two contrasting colours (e.g. black and white, red and white).  Each side of the bead has  electrical charge (positive or negative), so they exhibit an electrical dipole. When voltage is applied to the surface of the sheet, the beads rotate to present one coloured side to the viewer. Voltages can be applied to the surface to create images such as text and picture.
Cross section of Gyricon flexible e-paper
Gyricon cross section
 They remain fixed in position until another electrical charge is applied to change the orientation of the beads. So, there is no need of power after text/picture is written.This e-paper can be erased and rewrite infinite time(theoretically) by applying corresponding voltages.

Current trends in flexible and foldable displays 

Recently  flexible display market has gained great momentum owing to the competition and usage in various areas likes mobile phones, laptops and other handheld consumer electronic devices. Due to the advent of advanced materials and new technologies, display market is evolving at higher speed.

OLED based flexible displays have gained more attention than any other flexible display technology. Many leading companies have displayed their version of flexible displays in recent times. Apart from prototypes commercial production is yet to begin. Even though there  are many challenges and hurdles  in incorporating  flexible displays in consumer electronics,tech giants  like LG, Samsung, Sharp and Sony are in the brim of it. Commercial release of such display based electronic devices are expected in the last quarter of 2018.

News from tech world hits at commercial release of flexible display devices sooner. Let us have look at where tech companies stand in flexible display technology.

CES 2013: Samsung flexible phone prototype unveiled

Samsung unveiled its flexible phone prototype, running Windows Phone 8 and branded Youm, during a keynote at CES .On stage at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, the prototype phone was shown being flexed and bent without any conspicuous colour distortion, with other pre-recorded demonstrations shown on film.
Samsung has been working on flexible displays for a number of years, but its latest demonstration was the first to prove it has already talked to other companies about how it might implement flexible displays.

Samsung brings the foldup phone a step closer with the world's first 'stretchable' display

Recently Samsung has unveiled a radical 9.1-inch stretchable display .A flexible OLED (organic light-emitting diode) screen which could stretch in both direction by as much as 12 millimetres might spell out a new era in phone screen technology, the report says.
Samsung says the stretchy screen will be useful for everything from wearables to in-car displays, and could also lead to a new generation of wearable devices that can be knocked or dropped and simply move back into place.
Samsung flexible and stretchable display
samsung stretchable display
Samsung stretchable flexible display
samsung stretchable display
When the screen is pressed from above, the screen is dented like a rubber balloon, then returns to its original flat shape.The Korean manufacturer revealed the panel at the Society for Information Display 2017 event in the LA Convention Centre..

Samsung Galaxy X: Rumors and news leaks

Samsung has long been rumored to be prepping the Galaxy X for a release sometime in 2017.
Samsung will “test the waters” with the limited run prototype, which may launch in 2018.
The phone is described as having two OLED display panels with a hinge in the middle. Screens without bezels, like the ones used on the Galaxy S8, may be used to create a seamless, one-screen look.
Samsung foldable  flexible display patent application
Samsung flexible display patent application

A patent application reveals a number of renders and illustrates the smartphone’s hinge from a number of angles. Check out the latest photos below.

 Apple seeks new patent for folding displays 

 apple flexible display patent application
The US Patent & Trademark Office has published an Apple patent application for a foldable display. This follows earlier rumors that the company was working with LG on a future foldable iPhone.
‘An electronic device may have a flexible portion that allows the device to be folded. The device may have a flexible display. The flexible display may have a bending region that allows the display to bend along a bend axis when the device is folded’.Patent describes.

The patent describes a display that can be ‘opened and closed like a book’ .Display may include an array of display pixels formed from liquid crystal display (LCD) components, an array of electrophoretic display pixels, an array of organic light-emitting diode display pixels, an array of pixels formed from crystalline semiconductor light-emitting diode dies (sometimes referred to as micro-LEDs), an array of electrowetting display pixels, or display pixels based on other display technologies.
apple flexible iphone concept

LG’s  unveiled its latest OLED screen which is  transparent and flexible

On June 22 2017 LG announced that it’s created the world’s first flexible, transparent 77-inch OLED display.  display is 77 inches on the diagonal with an aspect ratio of 16:9.The screen has a UHD resolution of 3840 x 2160, offers up to 40 percent transparency, and can be fixed with a curvature of up to 80 degrees.
LG flexible display
LG 77 inch bendable display
 On LG’s official website, it is see that company’s goal is to start mass production of FHD Curved OLED and Wide area flexible display by end of 2017.

Currently based on the information available LG is the front runner in flexible display technology. Partnership between Apple and LG in display production  proves above statement to be true.

Apart from above tech giant,s few Chinese entities like ITRI and BOE have invested in flexible display field.

Lenovo Bendable phone 

In 2016, Lenovo unveiled working prototypes of bendable smartphones and tablets. The project was codenamed CPlus. You can wear it around your wrist like a smartwatch.No official release date was announced yet.
Lenovo CPlus phone display

ITRI demonstrates a foldable AMOLED prototype

ITRI flexible display prototype
ITRI flexible display prototype
ITRI is a nonprofit R&D organization engaging in applied research and technical services in Taiwan.
ITRI institute demonstrated a new foldable AMOLED display prototype, saying that its technology is rapidly approaching "commercial standards". It’s developers claims “ITRI has developed a transparent OLED display based on its FlexUP™ substrate. With the advantages of being flexible and transparent, this technology could be utilized in automotive display, e.g. on windshield glass and side windows. This transparent OLED display offers enhanced user experience in the automotive display and thus opens an opportunity for the next generation display. Watch videoRead more about ITRI flexible display

BOE Display's latest flexible and foldable AMOLED display prototypes

BOE flexible display
BOE flexible display
Chinese firm BOE Display(BOE Technology Group Co., Ltd.) demonstrated its first batch of flexible OLED panels made at its new B7 6-Gen OLED fab in Chengdu.  . The production line is the world’s second production line for flexible AMOLED panels and China’s first. The line is expected to break the monopoly enjoyed by Korean companies  Samsung, LG and others. Already, there are indications that Huawei, Xiaomi, OPPO, Vivo and other OEMs are showing interests in patronizing the BOE AMOLED display.  Watch video BOE flexible display 

Conclusion: After going through the latest developments and news and considering the fact that technology is evolving faster than ever, it is obvious that by the end of 2018 foldable and smartphones will hit the market. Already LG has rolled out curved/flexible display panels suitable for TVs, but incorporating flexible displays with handheld devices pose no of challenges. For mass production price also need to be contained. In coming years more researches, investments  and innovations are expected in this field.

Wednesday, 25 January 2017

How transparent displays work

Transparent display

A transparent smartphone concept
A Transparent display is an electronic display that allows the user to see what is shown on the glass screen while still being able to see through it.Transparent Electroluminescent display has been around for a decade or two.It has been an inevitable part oif sci-fi movies since 90's.Always Hollywood is a step ahead of science.But,only after 2010 companies have started thinking about it seriously.By the end of 2011 few companies had finished their transparent display prototypes.

Types of Transparent/see through displays

There are two major transparent display technologies, LCD and LED.Transparent LCD display is of absorptive nature and transparent LED display is emissive in nature.Let us have a look at the working principle behind both type of see-through dispalys.

How transparent displays work?

Transparent LCD display

Transparet LCD display from EVOLUCE(a German company)
Hope you are familiar with the working of LCD display.If don't please go through and come back.
How LCD works
Different Layers of an LCD unit
Refer the diagram given above.You can see different layers of LCD display unit.If you remove the mirror(A) ,then remaining layers can be made transparent.Standard LCD screens,have backlit components built into them to help illuminate the pixels on the screen. This backlighting help make the screen visible to viewers, but thicken the screens so that they’re no longer see-through.onverting these standard LCD screens into transparent LCD screens requires an alternative light source that doesn’t block the display. Transparent LCD panel utilizes ambient light such as sun light, which consequently reduces the dependency on electricity for generating power.Usually for transparent LCD system LED illuminated boxes with integrated electronics and connections are used.
A transparent LCD display can be integrated into store windows, display cases, billboards, and more to make static words and images more kinetic. Products can be placed behind a clear transparent screen that shows advertising and provide the opportunity to showcase real products while providing interactive information with an transparent LCD display.

Transparent LED display.

Samsung transparent OLED panel
Transparent OLED displays are self-emitting  and utilize cutting edge Organic Light Emitting Diode [OLED] technology to eliminate the need for a backlight or enclosure.
A transparent OLED pixel
Each pixel in a transparent OLED is made up of 4 sub-pixels. Color is created by the combination of red, green and blue sub- pixels and the remaining area of the pixel is clear. That clear section creates the transparency.This is why there is a direct relationship between resolution and transparency. Ff the display contains more active pixels that creates less space for clear pixels,it results in less see-through.So,in OLED transparent panel design,there is a need for transmission and resolution optimization.Unlike transparent LCD displays,black or dark content on the display is clear and white or bright content is opaque.Just like any glass surface ,ambient light effects that appearance of transparency.The more you light the item behind,more transparent the screen.Transparent cathode and electronics components also add to the transparency of panel.Transparent electronics are made using a special class of material called Transparent Conductive Oxides(TCO).In2O3,SnO2,CdO,ZnO are some of the commonly used TCOs.
Transparency in eletronics can also be achieved by graphene.Graphene is single atom thick carbon sheet which is highly transparent and super flexible.[Read more about graphene]Researches in this field is going around the world.Scientist claim that graphene will be the key to future electronics.

Monday, 28 November 2016

What is AMOLED Display?

AMOLED display (Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode)

Samsung is the largest Manufacturer of AMOLED displays
Content Highlights 
  • What is an LCD display 
  • What is an OLED 
  • How does an OLED works 
  • Types of OLED display 
  • AMOLED(Active) and Passive matrix OLED displays 
  • Advantages and disadvantages of AMOLED display 
  • Super AMOLED display

Expansion of AMOLED is Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode.Let us see what each term means.Let us start with LED.

LED Display

An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video/picture display.As you know an LED( light-emitting diode) is a p-n junction which emits light when electric current is passed through it.In an LED dispaly panel , these LEDs are shrunk down dramatically and arranged in red, green and blue clusters to create an individual pixel that can reproduce white light and various colors.

LED V/s LED back-lit LCD

LED displays are used in large displays like leaderboards,advertising pannels etcc. LED TVs and Smartphones displays are usually LCD with LED back-light. Usually consumers think that LED TVs have LED display. It is LED backlit LCD

OLED Display

The O part in OLED stands for organic.In an OLED, a thin layer of organic material is placed between two conductors, which is then used to produce light when a current is applied.At least one of these electrodes is transparent.Properties of these organic material is analogous to semiconductors.

Working principle of OLED

Originally, the most basic polymer OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer.But modern OLEDs incorporate a simple bilayer structure, consisting of a conductive layer and an emissive layer.
During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED electrodes such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode.Current flows through the device from anode to cathode(direction of electrons flow is opposite to current direction).Emmissive layer is more negative(electrons are the majority carriers) and conductive layer is more possitive(holes are the majority carriers).

As more electrons are injected into emmissive organic layer(2) at the cathode(1) and withdrawn from conductive layer (4)at the anode(5). Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons. The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron, accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material.

OLED layers
Schematic of a bilayer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+)

Classification of OLED Displays

OLED displays can be classified into passive matrix OLEDs(PMOLEDs) and active matrix OLEDs (AMOLEDs) based on their driving circuit.In a passive matrix, a complex grid system is used to control individual pixels, where integrated circuits control a charge sent down each column or row. But this is rather slow and can be imprecise. Active Matrix systems attach a thin film transistor (TFT) and capacitor to each LED.Each OLED pixel can be accessed by activating corresponding row and column , allowing for faster and more precise control.
Active v/s Passive matrix OLED

Pros and Cons of AMOLED Displays


IPS display is the main competitor of AMOLED display.Samsung is the leading promoter of AMOLED displays.But many leading brands like iPhones and HTC still use IPS display.So here we are analyzing the Pros and Cons of AMOLED Displays in comparison with IPS Displays
  • The panels are thinner: Allows for slimmer devices. AMOLED displays are much thinner than IPS Displays.
  • IPS LCD displays need back-lighting.But LED pixels in AMOLED display produce light their own.
  • Intense black color:In AMOLED display each pixel can be completely switched off,this in turn produces pure black colour.
  • High Battery Life: An AMOLED consumes less power than IPS.
  • High Contrast: AMOLED provide better contrast ratios.


  • Expensive production: The technology needed to develop AMOLED panels is very expensive.
  • Organic materials have limited lifespan, far shorter than the lifespan of LED or LCD. lifespans of each colour-specific organic material varies. Red and green OLED films have longer lifespans compared to blue OLED films. This variation results in colour shifts as a particular pixel fades faster than the other pixels.
  • Low definition images: less sharper images
  • Less accurate white colour when compared with IPS display
  • Compared with an LCD, an AMOLED display is difficult to view in direct sunlight due to reduced maximum brightness and lack of backlighting

Super AMOLED displays

An AMOLED touchscreen usually has an extra, touch sensitive layer on top of the screen, but with Super AMOLED designers able to integrate touch sensitivity into the screen itself.This was designed by Samsung.The result of this is that not only is the screen thinner, lighter, more touch sensitive and less power-hungry, but without that extra layer it's also far less reflective than a typical AMOLED screen, making it easier to view in bright sunlight.

Phones with amoled display

Apart from Samsung, many leading smartphone manufactures have started opting AMOLED displays for their latest model.Here you can find some leading smartphones with AMOLED display.
  • Huawei Mate 9 Pro
  • One Plus 3
  • Huawei Enjoy 6
  • ZTE Axon 7 mini
  • Asus Zenfone 3 Deluxe
  • Samsung J1 2016
  • Samsung W2017
  • Honor Note 8
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 7
  • Xiaomi Mi Note 2
  • Oppo F1 Plus
  • lenovo Moto Z
  • Meizu Pro 6
  • Google Pixel / Pixel XL
  • Vivo Xplay 5
  • Samsung Galaxy C9 Pro

Thursday, 13 October 2016

Speciality of IPS LCD displays

IPS LCD Display is one of leading display technology used in smartphones and other handheld devices.

Many Leading Mobile Phones like
iPhone7 use an IPS display
Content Highlights
  • What is LCD and How it works 
  • How LCD panel is wired 
  • Twisted nematic LCD 
  • Different Layers of LCD pannel
  • TFT display and its shortcomings 
  • IPS Display technology 
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of IPS LCD display technology in comparison with TFT,LED etc..

Before going into IPS LCD displays,let us have look at basic operation of LCDs. Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals. For instance, a liquid crystal may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystal-like way. When electricity is passed through, this crystals scatter light is different directions. This basic property of Liquid Crystals is exploited in Liquid Crystal Displays.

Basic unit of a LCD display system is a liquid crystal cell consists of a thin layer (about 10 u m) of a liquid crystal sandwiched between two glass sheets with transparent electrodes deposited on their inside faces. With both glass sheets transparent, the cell is known as transmittive type cell. When one glass is transparent and the other has a reflective coating, the cell is called reflective type. The LCD does not produce any light of its own. It depends entirely on light falling on it from an external source for producing viewable light.

Twisted nematic LCD

A nematic liquid crystal is a transparent or translucent liquid that causes the polarization of light waves(focusing of light in a plane) to change as the light pass through it.The extend of polarization depends on the intensity of applied electric field.
Twisted Nematics, a particular nematic substance is twisted naturally. When a known voltage is applied to the substance, it gets untwisted in varying degrees according to our requirement. This in turn is useful in controlling the passage of light. The relatively inexpensive twisted nematic display is the most common consumer display type.

How LCD works
Different Layers of an LCD unit
An LCD unit has two polarized glass pieces(F). The glass which does not have a polarized film on it must be rubbed with a special polymer to form microscopic grooves in the surface(B&E). Grooves are on the same direction as the polarizing film. Nematic crystal layer(D) is sandwiched between electrodes. The grooves will cause the first layer of molecules to align with the filter’s(polarizer) orientation. Two grooved glasses are at right angle to each other. Till the uppermost layer is at a 90-degree angle to the bottom, each successive layer of TN molecules will keep on twisting. The first filter will naturally be polarized as the light strikes it at the beginning. Thus the light passes through each layer and is guided on to the next with the help of molecules. When this happens, the molecules tend to change the plane of vibration of the light to match their own angle. When the light reaches the far side of the liquid crystal substance, it vibrates at the same angle as the final layer of molecules. The light is only allowed an entrance if the second polarized glass filter is same as the final layer. Take a look at the figure given above. Please note two polarizers are at right angle to each other.

The main principle behind liquid crystal molecules is that when an electric field is applied across them, they tend to untwist. This causes a change in the light angle passing through them. This causes a change in the angle of the top polarizing filter with respect to it. So little light is allowed to pass through that particular area of LCD. Thus that area becomes darker comparing to others.

Colour LCDs are those that can display pictures in colours. In addition to above layers, there must be three sub-pixels with red, green and blue colour filters to create each colour pixel.

LCD panel wiring

The liquid crystal displays used in calculators and other devices with similarly simple displays have direct-driven image elements, and therefore a voltage can be easily applied across just one segment of these types of displays without interfering with the other segments.
LCD pannel wiring
Direct driven LCD pannel

This would be impractical for a large display, because it would have a large number of (color) picture elements (pixels), and thus it would require millions of connections, both top and bottom for each one of the three colors (red, green and blue) of every pixel. To avoid this issue, the pixels are addressed in rows and columns, reducing the connection count from millions down to thousands. The column and row wires attach to transistor switches, one for each pixel. The one-way current passing characteristic of the transistor prevents the charge that is being applied to each pixel from being drained between refreshes to a display's image. Each pixel is a small capacitor with a layer of insulating liquid crystal sandwiched between transparent conductive layers.

TFT Displays

TFT Displays uses TN(Twisted nematic technology) The circuit layout process of a TFT-LCD is same as that explained above. However, rather than fabricating the transistors from silicon, that is formed into a silicon wafer, they are made from a thin film of silicon that is deposited on a glass panel. Transistors take up only a small fraction of the area of each pixel and the rest of the silicon film is etched away to allow light to easily pass through it.

Disadvantage of of TFT displays

Since TFT display uses TN technology,it has got disadvantages of TN displays.TN displays suffer from limited viewing angles. Colors will shift when viewed off-perpendicular
Also, most TN panels represent colors using only six bits per RGB color, or 18 bit in total, and are unable to display the 16.7 million color shades (24-bit true-color) that are available from graphics cards. Instead, these panels display interpolated 24-bit color using a method that combines adjacent pixels to simulate the desired shade. This disadvantages lead to the invention of IPS Technology.

IPS Display Technology

IPS (In-Plane Switching) displays provide consistent, accurate color from all viewing angles without blur or grayscale inversion. IPS displays show clear images with stable response time, and no halo effect is produced when touched.

Working of IPS Display
Working of IPS Display
What is an ips display?:Each pixel within an IPS type TFT consists of three sub-pixels (Red, Green and Blue). Each sub-pixel has a pair of electrodes to control the twisting of the Liquid Crystals. Unlike TN type TFTs where the electrodes are on opposing plates, the electrodes in an IPS TFT are on only one of the glass plates (i.e. in the same plane). When voltage is applied to the electrodes, all the Liquid Crystal molecules align in parallel with that plane and allow light to pass through to the polarizers and RGB color filters. In effect, TN displays force the Liquid Crystal molecules perpendicular to the glass which blocks some light from coming out at wide angles, while IPS displays keep the Liquid Crystal molecules in line to allow light through at all angles.
All modern mobiles phones from iPhones,samsung,LG etc.. are using IPS LCD displays.Many varaints of IPS displays are available in market.LG is one of the largest supplier of IPS displays.

Advantages of IPS Display

  • IPS panels display consistent, accurate colour from all viewing angles
  • Unlike TFT- TN LCDs, IPS panels do not lighten or show tailing when touched (halo effect). This is important for touch-screen devices, such as smartphones and tablets 
  • IPS panels offer clear images and stable response time .

Disadvantages of IPS Display

  • IPS panels require up to 15% more power than TN panels.
  • IPS panels are more expensive to produce than TN panels.
  • IPS panels have longer response time than TN panels.
All modern mobiles phones from iPhones,samsung,LG etc.. are using hd ips display.LG is one of the largest supplier of IPS screen displays.Are you planning to buy a IPS display laptop or full HD IPS display smartphone,then do some research ,because many varaints of IPS display monitors are available in market.Choose your product based on the price and affordability.
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