Latest Updates from Tech world;

Thursday, 2 February 2017

What is Internet of Things(IoT)?What are it's applications?

IoT for a interconnected world(
Internet of Things ( IoT) is an ecosystem of interconnected physical devices including smart phones tablets, wearable devices,vehicles ,robots, buildings,-embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.In simple words, 'IoT is nothing but connecting physical/virtual objects to the Internet'.
The term 'Internet of Things (IoT)' was coined by Kevin Ashton, a British technology pioneer working on radio-frequency identification (RFID) who conceived a system of ubiquitous sensors connecting the physical world to the Internet. Things, Internet, and connectivity are the three core components of IoT.

Concept of Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined in Recommendation ITU-T Y.2060 (06/2012) as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.
The Study Groups of ITU’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) assemble experts from around the world to develop international standards known as ITU-T Recommendations which act as defining elements in the global infrastructure of information and communication technologies (ICTs).ITU(International Telecommunication Union) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.
The IoT is expected to greatly integrate leading technologies, such as technologies related to advanced machine-to-machine communication, autonomic networking, data mining and decision-making, security and privacy protection and cloud computing, with technologies for advanced sensing and actuation.

3 Dimension of IoT

The new dimension introduced in the Internet of things 
Three dimensions of IoT are "Any THING communication","any TIME communication" and "any PLACE communication".Our current systems are already "any TIME" and "any PLACE".As shown in above Figure , the IoT adds a third dimension "Any Thing" to the information and communication technologies (ICTs) which already provide "any TIME" and "any PLACE" communication. 

Technical Components of Internet of Things

Technical overview of IoT 
Physical things exist in the physical world and are capable of being sensed, actuated and connected. Examples of physical things include the surrounding environment, industrial robots, goods and electrical equipment. Virtual things exist in the information world and are capable of being stored, processed and accessed. Examples of virtual things include multimedia content and application software.

A device is a piece of equipment with the mandatory capabilities of communication and optional capabilities of sensing, actuation, data capture, data storage and data processing. The devices collect various kinds of information and provide it to the information and communication networks for further processing. Some devices also execute operations based on information received from the information and communication networks.

Devices communicate with other devices: they communicate through the communication network via a gateway (case a), through the communication network without a gateway (case b) or directly, that is without using the communication network (case c). Also, combinations of cases a and c, and cases b and c are possible

The communication networks transfer data captured by devices to applications and other devices, as well as instructions from applications to devices. The communication networks provide capabilities for reliable and efficient data transfer.

Fundamental characteristics and requirements of Internet of Things

  • Interconnectivity: With regard to the IoT, anything can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure. 
  • Things-related services: The IoT is capable of providing thing-related services within the constraints of things, such as privacy protection and semantic consistency between physical things and their associated virtual things. 
  • Heterogeneity: The devices in the IoT are heterogeneous as based on different hardware platforms and networks. They can interact with other devices or service platforms through different networks. 
  • Dynamic changes: The state of devices change dynamically, e.g., sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including location and speed. Moreover, the number of devices can change dynamically. 
  • Enormous scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be at least an order of magnitude larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. 
  • Interoperability: Interoperability needs to be ensured among heterogeneous and distributed systems for provision and consumption of a variety of information and services.
  • Autonomic networking: Autonomic networking (including self-management, self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting techniques and/or mechanisms) needs to be supported in the networking control functions of the IoT, in order to adapt to different application domains, different communication environments and large numbers and types of devices.
  • Location-based capabilities: Location-based capabilities need to be supported in the IoT. Something-related communications and services will depend on the location information of things and/or users. It is needed to sense and track the location information automatically
  • Security: In the IoT, every 'thing' is connected which results in significant security threats, such as threats towards confidentiality, authenticity and integrity of both data and services. A critical example of security requirements is the need to integrate different security policies and techniques related to the variety of devices and user networks in the IoT.
  • High quality and highly secure human body related services: High quality and highly secure human body related services needs to be supported in the IoT.

Examples/Applications of Internet of Things

Connected/Smart Home

Smart home is the one in which the devices have the capability to communicate with each other as well as to their environment.There are hundreds of IoT technologies available for making your home real smart.Few are given below.

Nest Thermostat

Nest Thermostat
The Nest Learning Thermostat learns what temperatures you like, turns itself down when you're away and can be controlled from anywhere over Wi-Fi. By programming itself, the Nest thermostat can save up to 20% on your heating and cooling bill. You just have to teach it well.ReadMore

Amazon Echo

Amazon Echo
Amazon Echo is built. Designed to be highly sensitive listener, Echo has 7 inbuilt microphones to hear you from across the room even among other noises. Get answers, hear news, play music, listen to audio books and integrate to other smart home devices like Philips Hue, Samsung SmartThings and WeMo.

Internet Of Things(IoT) Applications For Smart Cities

Smart surveillance, safer and automated transportation, smarter energy management systems and environmental monitoring all are examples of internet of things applications for smart cities.

Bigbelly smart waste and recycling system

Bigbelly smart waste and recycling system
The Bigbelly smart waste and recycling system is comprised of modular components that enable you to deploy waste, recycling, and even compost stations that meet the needs of each station locations. Each station provides both real-time and historical collection data that can be accessed via the cloud-based CLEAN management console.
It helps with smart trash picking, avoid overflows and generate notifications making waste management truly smart.ReadMore

Libelium smart city parking

Llbelium smart city parking
Libelium has launch a new Smart Parking solution for Smart Cities that allows citizens to detect available parking spots. The new surface parking device -with LoRaWAN and Sigfox- features smaller size, higher accuracy and faster time of detection facilitating lower installation costs.ReadMore

Internet Of Things Applications In healthcare sector

Health monitoring sensors connected to internet is also an application of IoT.With the advent of IoT ,health care sector is the on of the major sector that is going to witness lot of innovations.


Future Path Medical has developed UroSense™, a medical device system that automates urine output and core body temperature (CBT) data gathering and charting for catheterized patients..These two vital signs can now be measured automatically, as opposed to current manual, inaccurate and time intensive methods .By monitoring these vital signs, one can trigger care protocols which can facilitate early treatment and diagnosis of heart failure, kidney injury, infectious disease.ReadMore

Philips smart medication dispensing system

Philips smart medication dispensing system
The Philips Automated Medication Dispensing Service can help seniors:
  • Take medication on schedule, from convenient pre-filled dosage cups
  • Reduce the risk of unplanned hospital or doctor visits related to incorrect medication use
  • Remain independent at home
The Philips Medication Dispensing Service serves caregivers by helping them support loved ones when they can’t be there. It can help:
  • Reduce the risk of accidental over or under dosing when no one is there to help
  • Reduce the risk of unnecessary medical complications and unplanned hospitalizations
  • Maintain independence and peace of mind.ReadMore
Applications of IoT is numerous.More and more IoTs are being rolled out each day. 

Thursday, 26 January 2017

5G Network:Key requirements and features

What is 5G and what it's standards and network,system and device requirements?

5G network system and device retirements and data speed

Content Highlights

  • What is 5G?
  • Who standardizes 5G?
  • NGMN alliance
  • 5G network requirements
  • 5G data speed
  • 5G system requirements
  • 5G device requirements

5G or 5th generation wireless network system, is the proposed next telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards.Rather than higher data transfer speeds,a 5G network aims at higher capacity than current 4G, allowing more number of interconnected devices per area unit. 5G network is not just a mobile communication network offering high speed data. 5G network envisage network of different kinds of devices connected using a standardized network backbone,that includes mobile handsets,computers,IoT(Internet of Things) and other electronic devices and machines.

There is currently no international standard for 5G networks.The Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN)defines the requirements that a 5G standard should fulfill.The NGMN Alliance was founded by leading international mobile network operators in 2006. The objective is to ensure that the standards for next generation network infrastructure, service platforms and devices will meet the requirements of operators and, ultimately, will satisfy end user demand and expectations.

The vision of the NGMN Alliance is to expand the communications experience by providing a truly integrated and cohesively managed delivery platform that brings affordable mobile broadband services to the end user with a particular focus on 5G while accelerating the development of LTE-Advanced and its ecosystem.

The NGMN Alliance complements and supports standards organizations by providing a coherent view of what mobile operators require. The alliance's project results have been acknowledged by groups such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), Tele Management Forum (TM Forum) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).NGMN provides inputs to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum.

NGMN expects customer requirements in the 2020+ time frame to result in:
  • Accommodation of massive traffic growth and high density demand
  • A wide variety and variability of services consumed
  • New use cases such as machine type communication (M2M, Internet of Things)
  • Stringent demands for real time communications

5G network Vision by NGMN alliance read as follows:
“5G is an end-to-end ecosystem to enable a fully mobile and connected society. It empowers value creation towards customers and partners, through existing and emerging use cases, delivered with consistent experience, and enabled by sustainable business models.”

5G Network Communication requirements

NGMN Alliance released white paper on 5th generation mobile network on 17-February-2015.The 5G requirements are derived out of NGMN’s vision on 5G network.An abstract of 5G white paper is given below.

User Experience requirements on a 5G network

Data Rate
Data rate requirements are expressed in terms of user experienced data rate, measured in bit/s at the application layer. The required user experienced data rate should be available in at least 95% of the locations (including at the cell-edge) for at least 95% of the time within the considered environment.Use case specific user experienced data rates up to 1 Gb/s should be supported in some specific environments, like indoor offices, while at least 50 Mb/s shall be available everywhere cost-effectively. 

Latency means nothing but 'the delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction for its transfer'.The 5G system should be able to provide 10 ms E2E latency in general and 1 ms E2E latency for the use cases which require extremely low latency

Mobility refers to the system’s ability to provide seamless service experience to users that are moving. In addition to mobile users, the identified 5G use cases show that 5G networks will have to support an increasingly large segment of static and nomadic users/devices. 5G solutions therefore should not assume mobility support for all devices and services but rather provide mobility on demand only to those devices and services that need it.

5G Data Speed(User Experience KPI’s(Key Performance Indicators)/End user experienced data rate)
Use case Category
User Experienced Data Rate 
E2E Latency
Broadband access in dense areas
DL: 300 Mbps  UL: 50 Mbps
10 ms
On demand,  0-100 km/h
Indoor ultra-high broadband access
DL: 1 Gbps, UL: 500 Mbps
10 ms
Broadband access in a crowd
DL: 25 Mbps
UL: 50 Mbps
10 ms
50+ Mbps everywhere
DL: 50 Mbps  UL: 25 Mbps
10 ms
0-120 km/h
Ultra-low cost broadband access for low ARPU areas
DL: 10 Mbps UL: 10 Mbps
50 ms
on demand: 050 km/h
Mobile broadband in vehicles (cars, trains)
DL: 50 Mbps
UL: 25 Mbps
10 ms
On demand, up to 500 km/h
Airplanes connectivity
DL: 15 Mbps per user 
UL: 7.5 Mbps per user
10 ms
Up to 1000 km/h
Massive lowcost/long-range/lowpower MTC
Low (typically 1-100 kbps)
Seconds to hours
on demand: 0500 km/h
Broadband MTC
See the requirements for the Broadband access in dense areas and 50+Mbps everywhere categories
Ultra-low latency
DL: 50 Mbps
UL: 25 Mbps
<1 ms
Resilience and traffic surge
DL: 0.1-1 Mbps UL: 0.1-1 Mbps
communication: not
0-120 km/h
Ultra-high reliability & Ultra-low latency
DL: From 50 kbps to 10 Mbps;  UL: From a few bps to 10 Mbps
1 ms
on demand: 0500 km/h
Ultra-high availability & reliability
DL: 10 Mbps
UL: 10 Mbps
10 ms
On demand, 0500 km/h
Broadcast like services
DL: Up to 200 Mbps 
UL: Modest (e.g. 500 kbps)
<100 ms
on demand: 0500 km/h

5G System Requirements

System performance requirements define the system capabilities needed to satisfy the variety and variability of users and use cases.

Connection Density 
Up to several hundred thousand simultaneous active connections per square kilometre shall be supported for massive sensor deployments. Here, active means the devices are exchanging data with the network. Note this KPI assumes a single operator in the considered area.
Traffic Density 
The 5G network should be able to serve massive number of HTC and MTC devices. In the extreme cases: 
  • Data rates of several tens of Mb/s should be supported for tens of thousands of users in crowded areas, such as stadiums or open-air festivals. 
  • 1Gb/s to be offered simultaneously to tens of workers in the same office floor. 
Spectrum Efficiency 

Spectrum efficiency should be significantly enhanced compared to 4G in order for the operators to sustain such huge traffic demands under spectrum constraints, while keeping the number of sites reasonable

The 5G technology should allow the data rates requirements to be achieved in rural areas with only the current grid of macro sites.

Resource and Signalling Efficiency
Signalling efficiency should be enhanced, so that the related radio resource and energy consumption are minimised and justified by the application needs.For certain IoT/MTC applications, additional measures should be considered to avoid a surge by volume in case a large number of devices attempt to access the network simultaneously.

5G System Requirements 

Use case category
Connection Density
Traffic Density
Broadband access in dense areas
200-2500 /km2
DL:  750 Gbps / km2  UL:  125 Gbps / km2
Indoor ultra-high broadband access
75,000 / km2 
(75/1000 m2 office)
DL:  15 Tbps/ km2 
(15 Gbps / 1000 m2)
UL:   2 Tbps / km2 
(2 Gbps / 1000 m2)
Broadband access in a crowd
150,000 / km2 
(30.000 / stadium)
DL:  3.75 Tbps / km2
 (DL: 0.75 Tbps / stadium)
UL:  7.5 Tbps / km2
 (1.5 Tbps / stadium)
50+ Mbps everywhere
400 / km2 in suburban

100 / km2 in rural
DL:  20 Gbps / km2 in suburban
UL: 10 Gbps / km2 in suburban
DL: 5 Gbps / km2 in rural
UL:  2.5 Gbps / km2 in rural
Ultra-low cost broadband access for low ARPU areas
16 / km2
16 Mbps / km2
Mobile broadband in vehicles (cars, trains)
2000 / km2 
(500 active users per train x 4 trains, 
or 1 active user per car x 2000 cars)
DL: 100 Gbps / km2 
(25 Gbps per train,  50 Mbps per car)
UL:   50 Gbps / km2 
(12.5 Gbps per train, 25 Mbps per car)
Airplanes connectivity
80 per plane 
60 airplanes per 18,000 km2
DL: 1.2 Gbps / plane 
UL: 600 Mbps / plane
Massive low-cost/long-range/low-power MTC
Up to 200,000 / km2
Non critical
Broadband MTC
See the requirements for the Broadband access in dense areas and 50+Mbps everywhere categories
Ultra-low latency
Not critical
Potentially high
Resilience and traffic surge
10,000 / km2
Potentially high
Ultra-high reliability & Ultra-low latency* 
(*) the reliability requirement for this category is described in Section 4.4.5
Not critical
Potentially high
Ultra-high availability & reliability* 
(*) the reliability requirement for this category is described in Section 4.4.5
Not critical
Potentially high
Broadcast like services
Not relevant
Not relevant

5G Device requirements

Smart devices in the 5G era will grow in capability and complexity as both the hardware and software, and particularly the operating system will continue to evolve. They may also in some cases become active relays to other devices, or support network controlled device-to-device communication.
Operator Control Capabilities on Devices 5G terminals should have a high degree of programmability and configurability by the network, for example in terms of terminal capabilities, access technology used, transport protocol used and certain lower layer functions (e.g. error control schemes).
The 5G devices should provide the capability to operators to check the hardware and software platform configuration over the air, the capability to update the smart device’s operating system over the air, and the ability to diagnose the malfunction of devices or malware in smart device plus the ability to fix the problems or update device software that affect end user experience or overall network performance. 

Multi-Band-Multi-Mode Support in Devices 

To enable true global roaming capability, smart devices should be able to support multiple bands as well as multiple modes (TDD/FDD/mixed). Note that IoT/MTC devices which are stationary may not require multiple bands/modes. 
Furthermore, to achieve the high data rates, devices should be able to use multiple bands simultaneously, without impacting the single band performance or network performance. 5G terminals shall support aggregation of data flows from different technologies and carriers. 

Device Power Efficiency 

Battery life shall be significantly increased: at least 3 days for a smartphone, and up to 15 years for a low-cost MTC device

Resource and Signalling Efficiency 
At the device side, the resource and signalling efficiency requirement is even more crucial as frequent signalling has a significant impact on the battery life. 

Connectivity Transparency 
Connectivity transparency is a key requirement for delivering consistent experience in a highly heterogeneous environment. 
5G may involve a combination of radio access technologies (RATs). In addition, given that 3GPP LTE / LTE-Advanced is likely to further evolve within the 5G era, both new RATs and the LTE RAT may be accessible to 5G user terminals. 

Wednesday, 25 January 2017

How transparent displays work

Transparent display

A transparent smartphone concept
A Transparent display is an electronic display that allows the user to see what is shown on the glass screen while still being able to see through it.Transparent Electroluminescent display has been around for a decade or two.It has been an inevitable part oif sci-fi movies since 90's.Always Hollywood is a step ahead of science.But,only after 2010 companies have started thinking about it seriously.By the end of 2011 few companies had finished their transparent display prototypes.

Types of Transparent/see through displays

There are two major transparent display technologies, LCD and LED.Transparent LCD display is of absorptive nature and transparent LED display is emissive in nature.Let us have a look at the working principle behind both type of see-through dispalys.

How transparent displays work?

Transparent LCD display

Transparet LCD display from EVOLUCE(a German company)
Hope you are familiar with the working of LCD display.If don't please go through and come back.
How LCD works
Different Layers of an LCD unit
Refer the diagram given above.You can see different layers of LCD display unit.If you remove the mirror(A) ,then remaining layers can be made transparent.Standard LCD screens,have backlit components built into them to help illuminate the pixels on the screen. This backlighting help make the screen visible to viewers, but thicken the screens so that they’re no longer see-through.onverting these standard LCD screens into transparent LCD screens requires an alternative light source that doesn’t block the display. Transparent LCD panel utilizes ambient light such as sun light, which consequently reduces the dependency on electricity for generating power.Usually for transparent LCD system LED illuminated boxes with integrated electronics and connections are used.
A transparent LCD display can be integrated into store windows, display cases, billboards, and more to make static words and images more kinetic. Products can be placed behind a clear transparent screen that shows advertising and provide the opportunity to showcase real products while providing interactive information with an transparent LCD display.

Transparent LED display.

Samsung transparent OLED panel
Transparent OLED displays are self-emitting  and utilize cutting edge Organic Light Emitting Diode [OLED] technology to eliminate the need for a backlight or enclosure.
A transparent OLED pixel
Each pixel in a transparent OLED is made up of 4 sub-pixels. Color is created by the combination of red, green and blue sub- pixels and the remaining area of the pixel is clear. That clear section creates the transparency.This is why there is a direct relationship between resolution and transparency. Ff the display contains more active pixels that creates less space for clear pixels,it results in less see-through.So,in OLED transparent panel design,there is a need for transmission and resolution optimization.Unlike transparent LCD displays,black or dark content on the display is clear and white or bright content is opaque.Just like any glass surface ,ambient light effects that appearance of transparency.The more you light the item behind,more transparent the screen.Transparent cathode and electronics components also add to the transparency of panel.Transparent electronics are made using a special class of material called Transparent Conductive Oxides(TCO).In2O3,SnO2,CdO,ZnO are some of the commonly used TCOs.
Transparency in eletronics can also be achieved by graphene.Graphene is single atom thick carbon sheet which is highly transparent and super flexible.[Read more about graphene]Researches in this field is going around the world.Scientist claim that graphene will be the key to future electronics.

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