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Monday, 28 November 2016

What is AMOLED Display?

AMOLED display (Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode)

Samsung is the largest Manufacturer of AMOLED displays
Content Highlights 
  • What is an LCD display 
  • What is an OLED 
  • How does an OLED works 
  • Types of OLED display 
  • AMOLED(Active) and Passive matrix OLED displays 
  • Advantages and disadvantages of AMOLED display 
  • Super AMOLED display

Expansion of AMOLED is Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode.Let us see what each term means.Let us start with LED.

LED Display

An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video/picture display.As you know an LED( light-emitting diode) is a p-n junction which emits light when electric current is passed through it.In an LED dispaly panel , these LEDs are shrunk down dramatically and arranged in red, green and blue clusters to create an individual pixel that can reproduce white light and various colors.

LED V/s LED back-lit LCD

LED displays are used in large displays like leaderboards,advertising pannels etcc. LED TVs and Smartphones displays are usually LCD with LED back-light. Usually consumers think that LED TVs have LED display. It is LED backlit LCD

OLED Display

The O part in OLED stands for organic.In an OLED, a thin layer of organic material is placed between two conductors, which is then used to produce light when a current is applied.At least one of these electrodes is transparent.Properties of these organic material is analogous to semiconductors.

Working principle of OLED

Originally, the most basic polymer OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer.But modern OLEDs incorporate a simple bilayer structure, consisting of a conductive layer and an emissive layer.
During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED electrodes such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode.Current flows through the device from anode to cathode(direction of electrons flow is opposite to current direction).Emmissive layer is more negative(electrons are the majority carriers) and conductive layer is more possitive(holes are the majority carriers).

As more electrons are injected into emmissive organic layer(2) at the cathode(1) and withdrawn from conductive layer (4)at the anode(5). Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons. The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron, accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material.

OLED layers
Schematic of a bilayer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+)

Classification of OLED Displays

OLED displays can be classified into passive matrix OLEDs(PMOLEDs) and active matrix OLEDs (AMOLEDs) based on their driving circuit.In a passive matrix, a complex grid system is used to control individual pixels, where integrated circuits control a charge sent down each column or row. But this is rather slow and can be imprecise. Active Matrix systems attach a thin film transistor (TFT) and capacitor to each LED.Each OLED pixel can be accessed by activating corresponding row and column , allowing for faster and more precise control.
Active v/s Passive matrix OLED

Pros and Cons of AMOLED Displays


IPS display is the main competitor of AMOLED display.Samsung is the leading promoter of AMOLED displays.But many leading brands like iPhones and HTC still use IPS display.So here we are analyzing the Pros and Cons of AMOLED Displays in comparison with IPS Displays
  • The panels are thinner: Allows for slimmer devices. AMOLED displays are much thinner than IPS Displays.
  • IPS LCD displays need back-lighting.But LED pixels in AMOLED display produce light their own.
  • Intense black color:In AMOLED display each pixel can be completely switched off,this in turn produces pure black colour.
  • High Battery Life: An AMOLED consumes less power than IPS.
  • High Contrast: AMOLED provide better contrast ratios.


  • Expensive production: The technology needed to develop AMOLED panels is very expensive.
  • Organic materials have limited lifespan, far shorter than the lifespan of LED or LCD. lifespans of each colour-specific organic material varies. Red and green OLED films have longer lifespans compared to blue OLED films. This variation results in colour shifts as a particular pixel fades faster than the other pixels.
  • Low definition images: less sharper images
  • Less accurate white colour when compared with IPS display
  • Compared with an LCD, an AMOLED display is difficult to view in direct sunlight due to reduced maximum brightness and lack of backlighting

Super AMOLED displays

An AMOLED touchscreen usually has an extra, touch sensitive layer on top of the screen, but with Super AMOLED designers able to integrate touch sensitivity into the screen itself.This was designed by Samsung.The result of this is that not only is the screen thinner, lighter, more touch sensitive and less power-hungry, but without that extra layer it's also far less reflective than a typical AMOLED screen, making it easier to view in bright sunlight.

Phones with amoled display

Apart from Samsung, many leading smartphone manufactures have started opting AMOLED displays for their latest model.Here you can find some leading smartphones with AMOLED display.
  • Huawei Mate 9 Pro
  • One Plus 3
  • Huawei Enjoy 6
  • ZTE Axon 7 mini
  • Asus Zenfone 3 Deluxe
  • Samsung J1 2016
  • Samsung W2017
  • Honor Note 8
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 7
  • Xiaomi Mi Note 2
  • Oppo F1 Plus
  • lenovo Moto Z
  • Meizu Pro 6
  • Google Pixel / Pixel XL
  • Vivo Xplay 5
  • Samsung Galaxy C9 Pro

Monday, 7 November 2016

Technologies used in Google Pixel smartphone

Finally Google launched its own branded smartphone ,Google Pixel.Let us have a look at some unique features and technologies used in  Google Pixel and Google Pixel XL
Google pixel and Google pixel XL have incorporated various modern technologies to give an edge over its rivals.


According to google "The highest rated smartphone camera. Ever.With a best-ever 89 DxOMark Mobile score, Pixel's camera lets you take brilliant photos in low light, bright light or any light"
Main camera has 12.3MP
Google Pixel comes with a 12.3MP primary camera
Phase detection autofocus:The phase detection/AF system is a very complex system that sees improvements pretty much every time when a higher end camera line is refreshed. Over the years, the number of autofocus points have been increasing, as well as the number of more reliable cross-type autofocus points.
Laser detection autofocus:It makes use of laser sensor system to adjust the focus of the handset's rear camera.
Google Pixel combines Phase detection and Laser detection to improve auto focusing capabilities of its rear camera.
f/2.0 Aperture:What does an "f/2.0 lens" mean?-Simply put, it's the ratio between the focal length of the lens and the aperture / hole that lets light through the lens into the camera.For example, an f/2.0, 50mm lens would have a aperture/hole diameter of 25mm.So the large the 'f' number, the smaller the opening.So,f/2.0 lens in a Google Pixel/Google Pixel XL   lets a lot of light through.
Sensor size:Large 1.55μm pixels-smaller pixels means higher clarity
Geo-tagging:You can add geographical identification metadata to photographs.
Secondary camera:8 MP, f/2.4 Aperture,Sensor size: 1.4 µm pixel

The first phone with the Google Assistant built in.

What is Google Assistant?-Google Assistant is Google's latest virtual assistant.It is designed to be personal voice assistant.
Here's how Google explains its new assistant:
"The assistant is conversational - an ongoing two-way dialogue between you and Google that understands your world and helps you get things done. It makes it easy to buy movie tickets while on the go, to find that perfect restaurant for your family to grab a quick bite before the movie starts, and then help you navigate to the theater."

How google assistant works

Google Assistant is designed to be conversational. That means you can ask a question and then ask several follow-up questions, and Google Assistant will be able to keep track of the conversation, determine context, and audibly respond with the right information.

For example, you can ask what you should have for dinner, and Google Assistant will locate local places to eat and serve up suggestions, with cards for a selection of restaurants.
Here's how Google Assistant works across the different Google devices.

Unlimited storage for all your photos and videos.

Anyone can download and install Google Photos on their iOS or Android phone. But the photo storage service caps photo resolution at 16 megapixels and video resolution at full HD (1,920 x 1,080) if you want to store an unlimited amount of media for free.
This means if you want to store higher resolution photos and videos at greater resolution (like 4K), you'd need to pay for a monthly storage plan.
With unlimited photo and video storage and their highest resolutions, the Pixel phones are an attractive value for people who want to store their memories in full forever.


It’s easier than ever to switch.
Switching enables you to transfer data from your existing phone to google pixel
Connect your old iPhone or Android device to your new Pixel with the Quick Switch Adapter.Switching from iPhone, Sign in to your Google Account. If you don't already have one, you'll be asked to create one.
Switching from Android,then your new Pixel should automatically sign you in to your Google Account, but if not, simply enter your password.
Once you’ve signed in to your Google Account, choose what you want to move, like your contacts, calendar events, photos, videos, music, SMS messages, iMessages and more. Then sit back and let Pixel do the work.
Supported devices include:

  • iPhone or iPad running iOS 8 and up
  • Nexus 5, 6, 5X, 6P running Android 5.0 and up
  • Most Android devices running Android 5.0 and up

AMOLED capacitive Multi-touch Display

AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode):The key component in an LED display types is a Light Emitting Diode (LED)the key component in these display types is a Light Emitting Diode (LED). In an LED display panel these are shrunk down dramatically and arranged in red, green and blue clusters to create an individual pixel that can reproduce white light and various colors.
Layers of an AMOLED display
The O in OLED stands for organic.There are a series of thin organic material films placed between two conductors in each LED, which is then used to produce light when a current is applied.AM part in AMOLED stands in for Active Matrix, rather than a passive matrix technology.In a passive matrix, a complex grid system is used to control individual pixels, where integrated circuits control a charge sent down each column or row. But this is rather slow and can be imprecise. Active Matrix systems attach a thin film transistor (TFT) and capacitor to each LED. This way, when a row and column is activated to access a pixel, the capacitor at the correct pixel can retain its charge in between refresh cycles, allowing for faster and more precise control.The major benefits from OLED type displays comes from the high level of control that can be exerted over each pixel. Pixels can be switched completely off, allowing for deep blacks and a high contrast ratio. Being able to dim and turn off individual pixels also saves on power. The lack of other layers on top of the LEDs means that the maximum amount of light reaches the display surface, resulting in brighter images with better viewing angles.
In super AMOLED display,it incorporates the capacitive touchscreen right into the display, instead of it being a separate layer on top of the display. This makes the display thinner.

16M colors:Pixel supports True color 24-bit representation or for a total of 224 or 16,777,216 color variations.
Resolution 1440 x 2560 pixels (~534 ppi pixel density):Pixel density (PPI) Refers to the concentration of pixels on a particular display, measured in pixels per inch (ppi). Pixel density is calculated by dividing the diagonal pixel resolution of a display by its diagonal size.
Multitouch:Multi-touch is a method of input on a touchscreen that allows two or more fingers to be used on the screen at one time.
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4:This prevents possible scratches.

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