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Thursday 2 February 2017

What is Internet of Things(IoT)?What are it's applications?

IoT for a interconnected world(
Internet of Things ( IoT) is an ecosystem of interconnected physical devices including smart phones tablets, wearable devices,vehicles ,robots, buildings,-embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.In simple words, 'IoT is nothing but connecting physical/virtual objects to the Internet'.
The term 'Internet of Things (IoT)' was coined by Kevin Ashton, a British technology pioneer working on radio-frequency identification (RFID) who conceived a system of ubiquitous sensors connecting the physical world to the Internet. Things, Internet, and connectivity are the three core components of IoT.

Concept of Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined in Recommendation ITU-T Y.2060 (06/2012) as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.
The Study Groups of ITU’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) assemble experts from around the world to develop international standards known as ITU-T Recommendations which act as defining elements in the global infrastructure of information and communication technologies (ICTs).ITU(International Telecommunication Union) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.
The IoT is expected to greatly integrate leading technologies, such as technologies related to advanced machine-to-machine communication, autonomic networking, data mining and decision-making, security and privacy protection and cloud computing, with technologies for advanced sensing and actuation.

3 Dimension of IoT

The new dimension introduced in the Internet of things 
Three dimensions of IoT are "Any THING communication","any TIME communication" and "any PLACE communication".Our current systems are already "any TIME" and "any PLACE".As shown in above Figure , the IoT adds a third dimension "Any Thing" to the information and communication technologies (ICTs) which already provide "any TIME" and "any PLACE" communication. 

Technical Components of Internet of Things

Technical overview of IoT 
Physical things exist in the physical world and are capable of being sensed, actuated and connected. Examples of physical things include the surrounding environment, industrial robots, goods and electrical equipment. Virtual things exist in the information world and are capable of being stored, processed and accessed. Examples of virtual things include multimedia content and application software.

A device is a piece of equipment with the mandatory capabilities of communication and optional capabilities of sensing, actuation, data capture, data storage and data processing. The devices collect various kinds of information and provide it to the information and communication networks for further processing. Some devices also execute operations based on information received from the information and communication networks.

Devices communicate with other devices: they communicate through the communication network via a gateway (case a), through the communication network without a gateway (case b) or directly, that is without using the communication network (case c). Also, combinations of cases a and c, and cases b and c are possible

The communication networks transfer data captured by devices to applications and other devices, as well as instructions from applications to devices. The communication networks provide capabilities for reliable and efficient data transfer.

Fundamental characteristics and requirements of Internet of Things

  • Interconnectivity: With regard to the IoT, anything can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure. 
  • Things-related services: The IoT is capable of providing thing-related services within the constraints of things, such as privacy protection and semantic consistency between physical things and their associated virtual things. 
  • Heterogeneity: The devices in the IoT are heterogeneous as based on different hardware platforms and networks. They can interact with other devices or service platforms through different networks. 
  • Dynamic changes: The state of devices change dynamically, e.g., sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including location and speed. Moreover, the number of devices can change dynamically. 
  • Enormous scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be at least an order of magnitude larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. 
  • Interoperability: Interoperability needs to be ensured among heterogeneous and distributed systems for provision and consumption of a variety of information and services.
  • Autonomic networking: Autonomic networking (including self-management, self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting techniques and/or mechanisms) needs to be supported in the networking control functions of the IoT, in order to adapt to different application domains, different communication environments and large numbers and types of devices.
  • Location-based capabilities: Location-based capabilities need to be supported in the IoT. Something-related communications and services will depend on the location information of things and/or users. It is needed to sense and track the location information automatically
  • Security: In the IoT, every 'thing' is connected which results in significant security threats, such as threats towards confidentiality, authenticity and integrity of both data and services. A critical example of security requirements is the need to integrate different security policies and techniques related to the variety of devices and user networks in the IoT.
  • High quality and highly secure human body related services: High quality and highly secure human body related services needs to be supported in the IoT.

Examples/Applications of Internet of Things

Connected/Smart Home

Smart home is the one in which the devices have the capability to communicate with each other as well as to their environment.There are hundreds of IoT technologies available for making your home real smart.Few are given below.

Nest Thermostat

Nest Thermostat
The Nest Learning Thermostat learns what temperatures you like, turns itself down when you're away and can be controlled from anywhere over Wi-Fi. By programming itself, the Nest thermostat can save up to 20% on your heating and cooling bill. You just have to teach it well.ReadMore

Amazon Echo

Amazon Echo
Amazon Echo is built. Designed to be highly sensitive listener, Echo has 7 inbuilt microphones to hear you from across the room even among other noises. Get answers, hear news, play music, listen to audio books and integrate to other smart home devices like Philips Hue, Samsung SmartThings and WeMo.

Internet Of Things(IoT) Applications For Smart Cities

Smart surveillance, safer and automated transportation, smarter energy management systems and environmental monitoring all are examples of internet of things applications for smart cities.

Bigbelly smart waste and recycling system

Bigbelly smart waste and recycling system
The Bigbelly smart waste and recycling system is comprised of modular components that enable you to deploy waste, recycling, and even compost stations that meet the needs of each station locations. Each station provides both real-time and historical collection data that can be accessed via the cloud-based CLEAN management console.
It helps with smart trash picking, avoid overflows and generate notifications making waste management truly smart.ReadMore

Libelium smart city parking

Llbelium smart city parking
Libelium has launch a new Smart Parking solution for Smart Cities that allows citizens to detect available parking spots. The new surface parking device -with LoRaWAN and Sigfox- features smaller size, higher accuracy and faster time of detection facilitating lower installation costs.ReadMore

Internet Of Things Applications In healthcare sector

Health monitoring sensors connected to internet is also an application of IoT.With the advent of IoT ,health care sector is the on of the major sector that is going to witness lot of innovations.


Future Path Medical has developed UroSense™, a medical device system that automates urine output and core body temperature (CBT) data gathering and charting for catheterized patients..These two vital signs can now be measured automatically, as opposed to current manual, inaccurate and time intensive methods .By monitoring these vital signs, one can trigger care protocols which can facilitate early treatment and diagnosis of heart failure, kidney injury, infectious disease.ReadMore

Philips smart medication dispensing system

Philips smart medication dispensing system
The Philips Automated Medication Dispensing Service can help seniors:
  • Take medication on schedule, from convenient pre-filled dosage cups
  • Reduce the risk of unplanned hospital or doctor visits related to incorrect medication use
  • Remain independent at home
The Philips Medication Dispensing Service serves caregivers by helping them support loved ones when they can’t be there. It can help:
  • Reduce the risk of accidental over or under dosing when no one is there to help
  • Reduce the risk of unnecessary medical complications and unplanned hospitalizations
  • Maintain independence and peace of mind.ReadMore
Applications of IoT is numerous.More and more IoTs are being rolled out each day. 

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